Product: IL10 Antibody
Catalog: DF6894
Description: Rabbit polyclonal antibody to IL10
Application: WB IHC IF/ICC
Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat
Prediction: Pig, Bovine, Horse, Sheep, Rabbit, Dog, Xenopus
Mol.Wt.: 19kDa; 21kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: P22301
RRID: AB_2838853

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Product Info

WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.

WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.

Pig(83%), Bovine(100%), Horse(100%), Sheep(100%), Rabbit(89%), Dog(100%), Xenopus(89%)
IL10 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total IL10.
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# DF6894, RRID:AB_2838853.
The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.


CSIF; Cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor; GVHDS; IL 10; IL-10; IL10; IL10_HUMAN; IL10A; Interleukin 10; Interleukin-10; MGC126450; MGC126451; T-cell growth inhibitory factor; TGIF;


P22301 IL10_HUMAN:

Produced by a variety of cell lines, including T-cells, macrophages, mast cells and other cell types.

IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that is produced by T cells, NK cells and macrophages (1,2). IL-10 initiates signal transduction by binding to a cell surface receptor complex consisting of IL-10 RI and IL-10 RII (1). Binding of IL-10 leads to the activation of Jak1 and Tyk2, which phosphorylates Stat-3 (1,3). The anti-inflammatory activity of IL-10 is due to its ability to block signaling through other cytokine receptors, notably IFNγ receptor, by upregulating expression of SOCS-1 (1,3). In addition, IL-10 promotes T cell tolerance by inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation of CD28 (4,5). IL-10 is an important negative regulator of the immune response, which allows for maintenance of pregnancy (1). In contrast, increased IL-10 levels contribute to persistent Leishmania major infections (6).



Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.

Model Confidence:
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence

Research Backgrounds


Major immune regulatory cytokine that acts on many cells of the immune system where it has profound anti-inflammatory functions, limiting excessive tissue disruption caused by inflammation. Mechanistically, IL10 binds to its heterotetrameric receptor comprising IL10RA and IL10RB leading to JAK1 and STAT2-mediated phosphorylation of STAT3. In turn, STAT3 translocates to the nucleus where it drives expression of anti-inflammatory mediators. Targets antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and monocytes and inhibits their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor /GM-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/G-CSF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha. Interferes also with antigen presentation by reducing the expression of MHC-class II and co-stimulatory molecules, thereby inhibiting their ability to induce T cell activation. In addition, controls the inflammatory response of macrophages by reprogramming essential metabolic pathways including mTOR signaling (By similarity).

Subcellular Location:


Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Produced by a variety of cell lines, including T-cells, macrophages, mast cells and other cell types.

Subunit Structure:

Homodimer. Interacts with IL10RA and IL10RB.


Belongs to the IL-10 family.

Research Fields

· Environmental Information Processing > Signaling molecules and interaction > Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > FoxO signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Jak-STAT signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Pertussis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Leishmaniasis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis).

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > African trypanosomiasis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Malaria.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Toxoplasmosis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Amoebiasis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Staphylococcus aureus infection.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Tuberculosis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Epstein-Barr virus infection.

· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Asthma.

· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Autoimmune thyroid disease.

· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Systemic lupus erythematosus.

· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Allograft rejection.

· Organismal Systems > Immune system > T cell receptor signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Intestinal immune network for IgA production.   (View pathway)


1). Realising highly efficient sonodynamic bactericidal capability through the phonon–electron coupling effect using two‐dimensional catalytic planar defects. Advanced Materials, 2023 (PubMed: 36524686) [IF=29.4]

2). Week-long normoglycaemia in diabetic mice and minipigs via a subcutaneous dose of a glucose-responsive insulin complex. Nature biomedical engineering, 2023 (PubMed: 38057427) [IF=28.1]

3). Tetrahedral Framework Nucleic Acids Based Small Interfering RNA Targeting Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products for Diabetic Complications Treatment. ACS Nano, 2023 (PubMed: 37751401) [IF=17.1]

4). An in situ tissue engineering scaffold with growth factors combining angiogenesis and osteoimmunomodulatory functions for advanced periodontal bone regeneration. JOURNAL OF NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY, 2021 (PubMed: 34404409) [IF=10.2]

5). Identification of circulating T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 4 as a potential biomarker for coronary heart disease. MedComm, 2023 (PubMed: 37426678) [IF=9.9]

Application: WB    Species: Mouse    Sample: RAW264.7 cells

FIGURE 4 Ox‐LDL/LPS activated ADAM17 to increase cleavage of mTIMD4 in macrophages. RAW264.7 cells treated with ox‐LDL (80 μg/mL) and TAPI‐1 (1 μM) for 24 h. (A) and (B) mTIMD4 expression was detected by immunofluorescent staining (n = 5). (C–F) The protein expression of mTIMD4, sTIMD4 in medium, TLR‐4, p‐NF‐κB, NF‐κB, IL‐6, caspase‐1, pro‐IL‐1β, TGF‐β1, and IL‐10 were detected by Western blotting (n = 3). (G–J) The mRNA expression mTIMD4, TLR‐4, IL‐6, and TGF‐β1 was determined by qRT‐PCR (n = 3–4). (K–N) RAW264.7 cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/mL) and TAPI‐1 (1 μM) for 24 h, and the protein expression of mTIMD4, sTIMD4 in medium, TLR‐4, p‐NF‐κB, NF‐κB, IL‐6, caspase‐1, pro‐IL‐1β, TGF‐β1, and IL‐10 were detected by Western blotting (n = 3). (O–P) RAW264.7 cells were transfected with 20 nM control si‐NC or si‐TIMD4 for 48 h and incubated with ox‐LDL (80 μg/mL) and TAPI‐1 (1 μM) for 24 h, followed by determination of mTIMD4, TLR‐4, p‐NF‐κB, NF‐κB, IL‐6, IL‐10, TGF‐β1, caspase‐1, pro‐IL‐1β protein expression by Western blotting (n = 3). HSP90 or GAPDH was used as a loading control. ns, not significant.

6). A novel lymphatic pattern promotes metastasis of cervical cancer in a hypoxic tumour-associated macrophage-dependent manner. ANGIOGENESIS, 2021 (PubMed: 33484377) [IF=9.8]

Application: IHC    Species: Mice    Sample: tumours

Fig. 3 IL-10 derived from hypoxic TAMs is required to maintain LVEM. a The different cytokines expression profiles among M0-N, M0-H, TAM-N and TAM-H were analysed by cytokine array (RayBio GSM-CAA-4000). b Screening and analysis of the differentially expressed cytokines. c The expressions of the five significant cytokines were analysed by qRT-PCR. d The secretions of the five significant cytokines were analysed by ELISA. e The migration effects of hypoxic TAMs-treated HDLECs on tumour cells (SiHa) and M2-polarized THP-1 macrophages were analysed by transwell assay in vitro. “Blank” represents the medium group. f Representative micrographs showing the tube formation in vitro (Scale bar, 50 μm). g Representative images showing the tube formation in vivo (Scale bar, 100 μm). h Statistical analysis showing the length of tube formation. Average length of tubes per field were calculated. i–l Popliteal lymphatic metastasis model was established in female C57BL/6 mice by inoculating the footpad with TC-1 cells (5 × 106). When footpad tumour size reached 50 mm3, IL-10 (50 ng/ml) or PBS was then injected into the centre of the tumours (n = 5/group, repeated twice) for 2 weeks daily. After 2 weeks of induction, primary tumours reached a comparable size of ~ 150 mm3, and then footpad tumours and popliteal LNs were collected for study. i Representative images of LYVE-1+ lymphatic vessel (red), CD206+ TAMs (green) and DAPI (blue) fluorescence staining in footpad tumour. j Metastasis-positive LNs were identified by IHC staining for epithelial marker CK7. k Statistical analysis showing the expression of peritumoural LV and LVEM in footpad tumour. l Statistical analysis showing the ratio of LNM. Error bars represent the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. **P < 0.01

7). Sodium alginate and galactooligosaccharides ameliorate metabolic disorders and alter the composition of the gut microbiota in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2022 (PubMed: 35718141) [IF=8.2]

8). Effects of Xin-Ji-Er-Kang on heart failure induced by myocardial infarction: Role of inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. PHYTOMEDICINE, 2018 (PubMed: 29655692) [IF=7.9]

Application: WB    Species: mouse    Sample: serum and cardiac

Fig. 10: |Effects of XJEK on protein expression in MI mice with WB method(A-C) Representative figures of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 protein. (D-F) Quantitative analyses of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 protein. (mean ± S.D, n = 3).

9). Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing ACE2 Favorably Ameliorate LPS-Induced Inflammatory Injury in Mammary Epithelial Cells. Frontiers in Immunology, 2022 (PubMed: 35095873) [IF=7.3]

Application: WB    Species: Mice    Sample: EpH4-Ev cells

Figure 7 MSC-ACE2 upregulates IL-10/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling pathway expression to suppress LPS-induced inflammation in EpH4-Ev cells. (A) Detection of relative protein expression levels of IL-10, phosphorylation levels of STAT3, STAT3 and SOCS3 by Western blot; (B–D), Statistics of the IL-10, phosphorylation levels of STAT3, STAT3 and SOCS3 Western blot results. Experiments were repeated three times and data were presented as the mean ± SEM (n = 4). * P < 0.05 vs. EpH4-Ev; # P < 0.05 vs. LPS; $ P < 0.05 vs. MSC; & P < 0.05 vs. MSC-GFP.

10). CD47 Deficiency in Mice Exacerbates Chronic Fatty Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis Through Its Role in Regulating Hepatic Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism. Frontiers in Immunology, 2020 (PubMed: 32158445) [IF=7.3]

Application: IHC    Species: mouse    Sample: Liver

Figure S2. |Liver sections were IHC stained for TGF-β (a), IL-6 (b) and IL-10 (c). Three samples per group were examined, and representative images are shown (Scale bar represents 50 µm).

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