Product: IL10 Antibody
Catalog: DF6894
Description: Rabbit polyclonal antibody to IL10
Application: WB IHC IF/ICC
Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat
Prediction: Pig, Bovine, Horse, Sheep, Rabbit, Dog, Xenopus
Mol.Wt.: 19kDa; 21kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: P22301
RRID: AB_2838853

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 100ul $280 In stock
 200ul $350 In stock

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Product Info

WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.

WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.

Pig(83%), Bovine(100%), Horse(100%), Sheep(100%), Rabbit(89%), Dog(100%), Xenopus(89%)
IL10 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total IL10.
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# DF6894, RRID:AB_2838853.
The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.


CSIF; Cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor; GVHDS; IL 10; IL-10; IL10; IL10_HUMAN; IL10A; Interleukin 10; Interleukin-10; MGC126450; MGC126451; T-cell growth inhibitory factor; TGIF;


P22301 IL10_HUMAN:

Produced by a variety of cell lines, including T-cells, macrophages, mast cells and other cell types.

IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that is produced by T cells, NK cells and macrophages (1,2). IL-10 initiates signal transduction by binding to a cell surface receptor complex consisting of IL-10 RI and IL-10 RII (1). Binding of IL-10 leads to the activation of Jak1 and Tyk2, which phosphorylates Stat-3 (1,3). The anti-inflammatory activity of IL-10 is due to its ability to block signaling through other cytokine receptors, notably IFNγ receptor, by upregulating expression of SOCS-1 (1,3). In addition, IL-10 promotes T cell tolerance by inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation of CD28 (4,5). IL-10 is an important negative regulator of the immune response, which allows for maintenance of pregnancy (1). In contrast, increased IL-10 levels contribute to persistent Leishmania major infections (6).



Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.

Model Confidence:
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence

Research Backgrounds


Major immune regulatory cytokine that acts on many cells of the immune system where it has profound anti-inflammatory functions, limiting excessive tissue disruption caused by inflammation. Mechanistically, IL10 binds to its heterotetrameric receptor comprising IL10RA and IL10RB leading to JAK1 and STAT2-mediated phosphorylation of STAT3. In turn, STAT3 translocates to the nucleus where it drives expression of anti-inflammatory mediators. Targets antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and monocytes and inhibits their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor /GM-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/G-CSF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha. Interferes also with antigen presentation by reducing the expression of MHC-class II and co-stimulatory molecules, thereby inhibiting their ability to induce T cell activation. In addition, controls the inflammatory response of macrophages by reprogramming essential metabolic pathways including mTOR signaling (By similarity).

Subcellular Location:


Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Produced by a variety of cell lines, including T-cells, macrophages, mast cells and other cell types.

Subunit Structure:

Homodimer. Interacts with IL10RA and IL10RB.


Belongs to the IL-10 family.

Research Fields

· Environmental Information Processing > Signaling molecules and interaction > Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > FoxO signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Jak-STAT signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Pertussis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Leishmaniasis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis).

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > African trypanosomiasis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Malaria.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Toxoplasmosis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Amoebiasis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Staphylococcus aureus infection.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Tuberculosis.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Epstein-Barr virus infection.

· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Asthma.

· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Autoimmune thyroid disease.

· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Systemic lupus erythematosus.

· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Allograft rejection.

· Organismal Systems > Immune system > T cell receptor signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Intestinal immune network for IgA production.   (View pathway)


1). Ding T et al. An in situ tissue engineering scaffold with growth factors combining angiogenesis and osteoimmunomodulatory functions for advanced periodontal bone regeneration. JOURNAL OF NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY 2021 Aug 17;19(1):247. (PubMed: 34404409) [IF=10.2]

2). Chen XJ et al. A novel lymphatic pattern promotes metastasis of cervical cancer in a hypoxic tumour-associated macrophage-dependent manner. ANGIOGENESIS 2021 Jan 23. (PubMed: 33484377) [IF=9.8]

Application: IHC    Species: Mice    Sample: tumours

Fig. 3 IL-10 derived from hypoxic TAMs is required to maintain LVEM. a The different cytokines expression profiles among M0-N, M0-H, TAM-N and TAM-H were analysed by cytokine array (RayBio GSM-CAA-4000). b Screening and analysis of the differentially expressed cytokines. c The expressions of the five significant cytokines were analysed by qRT-PCR. d The secretions of the five significant cytokines were analysed by ELISA. e The migration effects of hypoxic TAMs-treated HDLECs on tumour cells (SiHa) and M2-polarized THP-1 macrophages were analysed by transwell assay in vitro. “Blank” represents the medium group. f Representative micrographs showing the tube formation in vitro (Scale bar, 50 μm). g Representative images showing the tube formation in vivo (Scale bar, 100 μm). h Statistical analysis showing the length of tube formation. Average length of tubes per field were calculated. i–l Popliteal lymphatic metastasis model was established in female C57BL/6 mice by inoculating the footpad with TC-1 cells (5 × 106). When footpad tumour size reached 50 mm3, IL-10 (50 ng/ml) or PBS was then injected into the centre of the tumours (n = 5/group, repeated twice) for 2 weeks daily. After 2 weeks of induction, primary tumours reached a comparable size of ~ 150 mm3, and then footpad tumours and popliteal LNs were collected for study. i Representative images of LYVE-1+ lymphatic vessel (red), CD206+ TAMs (green) and DAPI (blue) fluorescence staining in footpad tumour. j Metastasis-positive LNs were identified by IHC staining for epithelial marker CK7. k Statistical analysis showing the expression of peritumoural LV and LVEM in footpad tumour. l Statistical analysis showing the ratio of LNM. Error bars represent the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. **P < 0.01

3). Hu J et al. Effects of Xin-Ji-Er-Kang on heart failure induced by myocardial infarction: Role of inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. PHYTOMEDICINE 2018 Mar 15;42:245-257 (PubMed: 29655692) [IF=7.9]

Application: WB    Species: mouse    Sample: serum and cardiac

Fig. 10: |Effects of XJEK on protein expression in MI mice with WB method(A-C) Representative figures of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 protein. (D-F) Quantitative analyses of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 protein. (mean ± S.D, n = 3).

4). Yan S et al. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing ACE2 Favorably Ameliorate LPS-Induced Inflammatory Injury in Mammary Epithelial Cells. Frontiers in Immunology 2022 Jan 14;12:796744. (PubMed: 35095873) [IF=7.3]

Application: WB    Species: Mice    Sample: EpH4-Ev cells

Figure 7 MSC-ACE2 upregulates IL-10/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling pathway expression to suppress LPS-induced inflammation in EpH4-Ev cells. (A) Detection of relative protein expression levels of IL-10, phosphorylation levels of STAT3, STAT3 and SOCS3 by Western blot; (B–D), Statistics of the IL-10, phosphorylation levels of STAT3, STAT3 and SOCS3 Western blot results. Experiments were repeated three times and data were presented as the mean ± SEM (n = 4). * P < 0.05 vs. EpH4-Ev; # P < 0.05 vs. LPS; $ P < 0.05 vs. MSC; & P < 0.05 vs. MSC-GFP.

5). Tao HC et al. CD47 Deficiency in Mice Exacerbates Chronic Fatty Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis Through Its Role in Regulating Hepatic Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism. Frontiers in Immunology 2020 Feb 25;11:148 (PubMed: 32158445) [IF=7.3]

Application: IHC    Species: mouse    Sample: Liver

Figure S2. |Liver sections were IHC stained for TGF-β (a), IL-6 (b) and IL-10 (c). Three samples per group were examined, and representative images are shown (Scale bar represents 50 µm).

6). Tan H et al. The Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1/Programmed Cell Death-1 Pathway Mediates Pregnancy-Induced Analgesia via Regulating Spinal Inflammatory Cytokines. ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA 2021 Sep 14;133(5):1321-1330. (PubMed: 34524124) [IF=5.7]

Application: WB    Species: Mouse    Sample: RAW264.7 cells

Figure 5. ARR downregulates the protein expression of TRAF6 and NF-κB p65 by increasing the content of NLRC3 protein molecules. (A) Expression levels of NLRC3, TRAF6 and NF-κB p65 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were detected using immunohistochemistry staining (magnification, ×400; scale bar, 200-µm). The mean optical density values of (B) NLRC3, (C) TRAF6 and (D) NF-κB p65 were quantified using ImageJ software. The protein expression levels of (E) NLRC3 and (F) TRAF6 were detected using western blotting and semi-quantified using Image Lab software. LPS represents protein from the 100 ng/ml LPS-treated group; Indo represents protein from the 8 µg/ml Indo and 100 ng/ml LPS-treated group; ARR represents protein from the 100 µg/ml ARR and 100 ng/ml LPS-treated group. Data are presented as the mean ± SD (n=3). ##P<0.01 vs. control group; *P<0.05, **P<0.01 vs. LPS group. ARR, α-rhamnrtin-3-α-rhamnoside; TRAF6, tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 6; NLRC3, NOD-like receptor family CARD domain containing 3; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; Indo, indomethacin.

7). Zhao T et al. Folic acid attenuates glial activation in neonatal mice and improves adult mood disorders through epigenetic regulation. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2022 Feb 7;13:818423. (PubMed: 35197855) [IF=5.6]

8). Zhou Y et al. Bmal1 Regulates Macrophage Polarize Through Glycolytic Pathway in Alcoholic Liver Disease. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2021 Mar 10;12:640521. (PubMed: 33790796) [IF=5.6]

Application: WB    Species: Mice    Sample: liver tissue

FIGURE 2 Phenotypic characteristics of macrophages in EtOH-fed mice liver tissue and ethanol-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. (A) Effects of ethanol on protein and mRNA levels of M1 macrophage markers (TNF-α, IL-1β) in liver tissue. (B) The protein and mRNA levels of M2 macrophage markers (IL-10, ARG-1) in liver tissue. (C) Immunofluorescence staining results of M1, M2 macrophage markers (CD86, CD206) in liver tissue of EtOH-fed mice. (D) The protein and mRNA levels of M1 macrophage (TNF-α, IL-1β) in ethanol-induced RAW264.7 cells. (E) The protein and mRNA levels of M2 macrophage markers (IL-10, ARG-1) in ethanol-induced RAW264.7 cells. The results are shown as relative expression against control expression without treatment. Data shown are the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. CD-fed group or control group.

9). Wu X et al. Protective effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity in mice. International Immunopharmacology 2019 Apr 12;72:166-175 (PubMed: 30986644) [IF=5.6]

Application: WB    Species: mouse    Sample: hippocampus

Fig. 4. |TUDCA treatment suppressed LPS-activated NF-κB signaling and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. (A) Representative immunoblots of the nuclear NF-κB p65 in the hippocampus was shown, and Histone H3 was used as a loading control. (B) Representative immunoblots of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 in the hippocampus, and β-actin protein was used here as an internal control.

10). Yan S et al. Wu-Mei-Wan Ameliorates Murine Ulcerative Colitis by Regulating Macrophage Polarization. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2022 Mar 21;13:859167. (PubMed: 35387334) [IF=5.6]

Application: WB    Species: mouse    Sample: colon

FIGURE 5 | WMW reduces colonic inflammatory responses in DSS-induced colitis. (B) Relative mRNA level of IL10, Arg-1, and TGF-β1in the colon was measured through qPCR. Expression of IL-10, Arg-1, and TGF-β1 in colon tissue lysates were determined by Western blot from DSS-challenged mice. n = 3,.means ± SEM.*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.

Application: IF/ICC    Species: mouse    Sample: colitis

FIGURE 6 | The proportion of M1/M2 macrophages changes in colon sections obtained from mice with ulcerative colitis induced by DSS (A) Double immunofluorescent signals from CD80 and interleukin-1 in DSS-induced colitis tissue at different time points (original magnification, 200 ×). (B) Double immunofluorescent signals from CD206 and interleukin-10 in DSS-induced colitis tissue at different time points (original magnification, 200 ×).

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