Product: ARG1 Antibody
Catalog: DF6657
Description: Rabbit polyclonal antibody to ARG1
Application: WB IHC IF/ICC
Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat
Prediction: Pig, Xenopus
Mol.Wt.: 35kDa; 35kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: P05089
RRID: AB_2838619

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Product Info

WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.

WB: For western blot detection of denatured protein samples. IHC: For immunohistochemical detection of paraffin sections (IHC-p) or frozen sections (IHC-f) of tissue samples. IF/ICC: For immunofluorescence detection of cell samples. ELISA(peptide): For ELISA detection of antigenic peptide.

Pig(82%), Xenopus(83%)
ARG1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total ARG1.
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# DF6657, RRID:AB_2838619.
The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.


A I; Al; ARG 1; arg1; ARGI1_HUMAN; Arginase 1; Arginase liver; Arginase type I; Arginase, liver; Arginase-1; Arginase1; Liver type arginase; Liver-type arginase; Type I arginase;



Within the immune system initially reported to be selectively expressed in granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) (PubMed:15546957). Also detected in macrophages mycobacterial granulomas (PubMed:23749634). Expressed in group2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) during lung disease (PubMed:27043409).

Arginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. At least two isoforms of mammalian arginase exist (types I and II) which differ in their tissue distribution, subcellular localization, immunologic crossreactivity and physiologic function. The type I isoform encoded by this gene, is a cytosolic enzyme and expressed predominantly in the liver as a component of the urea cycle. Inherited deficiency of this enzyme results in argininemia, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyperammonemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.



Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.

Model Confidence:
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence

PTMs - P05089 As Substrate

Site PTM Type Enzyme
S16 Phosphorylation
T29 Phosphorylation
K33 Ubiquitination
Y50 Phosphorylation
S62 Phosphorylation
S72 Phosphorylation
S94 Phosphorylation
S102 Phosphorylation
S107 Phosphorylation
S109 Phosphorylation
S163 Phosphorylation
T166 Phosphorylation
C168 S-Nitrosylation
S170 Phosphorylation
K191 Acetylation
S217 Phosphorylation
Y265 Phosphorylation
C303 S-Nitrosylation

Research Backgrounds


Key element of the urea cycle converting L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine, which is further metabolized into metabolites proline and polyamides that drive collagen synthesis and bioenergetic pathways critical for cell proliferation, respectively; the urea cycle takes place primarily in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the kidneys.

Functions in L-arginine homeostasis in nonhepatic tissues characterized by the competition between nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase for the available intracellular substrate arginine. Arginine metabolism is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses. Involved in an antimicrobial effector pathway in polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN). Upon PMN cell death is liberated from the phagolysosome and depletes arginine in the microenvironment leading to suppressed T cell and natural killer (NK) cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. In group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) promotes acute type 2 inflammation in the lung and is involved in optimal ILC2 proliferation but not survival (By similarity). In humans, the immunological role in the monocytic/macrophage/dendritic cell (DC) lineage is unsure.

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic granule.
Note: Localized in azurophil granules of neutrophils (PubMed:15546957).

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Within the immune system initially reported to be selectively expressed in granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]). Also detected in macrophages mycobacterial granulomas. Expressed in group2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) during lung disease.

Subunit Structure:

Homotrimer. Interacts with CMTM6.


Belongs to the arginase family.

Research Fields

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Amoebiasis.

· Metabolism > Amino acid metabolism > Arginine biosynthesis.

· Metabolism > Amino acid metabolism > Arginine and proline metabolism.

· Metabolism > Global and overview maps > Metabolic pathways.

· Metabolism > Global and overview maps > Biosynthesis of amino acids.


1). Opsonized nanoparticles target and regulate macrophage polarization for osteoarthritis therapy: A trapping strategy. Journal of Controlled Release, 2022 (PubMed: 35489544) [IF=10.8]

2). Aligned electrospun poly(l-lactide) nanofibers facilitate wound healing by inhibiting macrophage M1 polarization via the JAK-STAT and NF-κB pathways. JOURNAL OF NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY, 2022 (PubMed: 35883095) [IF=10.2]

Application: WB    Species: Mice    Sample:

Fig. 2 The effect of aligned nanofibers on macrophage polarization. A Phalloidin staining of macrophages on electrospun membranes. Actin is stained green, and the nucleus is stained blue. B Flow cytometric analysis of macrophages. C qPCR analysis of M2 polarization-related genes. D ELISA analysis of IL-4 secretion. E qPCR analysis of M1 polarization-related genes (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, n = 3). F Western blot analysis of macrophage polarization-related proteins. G and H Immunofluorescence analysis of CD86 and CD206 expression in macrophages. CD86 and CD206 are stained red, and the nucleus is stained blue

3). Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound promotes skeletal muscle regeneration via modulating the inflammatory immune microenvironment. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 2023 (PubMed: 36923940) [IF=9.2]

4). CCL5 derived from tumor-associated macrophages promotes prostate cancer stem cells and metastasis via activating β-catenin/STAT3 signaling. Cell Death & Disease, 2020 (PubMed: 32300100) [IF=9.0]

Application: WB    Species: human    Sample: prostate cancer cells

Fig. 3 TAM-secreted CCL5 promoted the invasion of prostate cancer cells and the self-renewal of PCSCs. a, b The reliability of THP1-derived TAMs was validated by analyzing the macrophage surface markers. THP1 monocytes were induced differentiation into macrophages (M0) by 100 ng/ ml PMA treatment for 24 h, which were further transformed into M2 phenotype macrophages (TAMs) by 10 ng/ml IL-4 induction for 72 h. c, d The CM of THP1-derived TAMs significantly promoted EMT, migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells, while CCL5 NA could partly abrogate that. Scale bars represent 200 μm for wound healing assay images and 50 μm for transwell assay images. e The CM of THP1-derived TAMs significantly promoted the self-renewal of PCSCs, while CCL5 NA could partly abrogate that. All values are presented as the mean ± SD. n = 3, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.

5). Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma–associated IL‐33 rewires macrophage polarization towards M2 via activating ornithine decarboxylase. CELL PROLIFERATION, 2021 (PubMed: 33305406) [IF=8.5]

Application: IF/ICC    Species: human    Sample: M2 macrophages

FIGURE 2|IL-33 skews M2 macrophage polarization. F, Immunofluorescence staining for IL-33–induced M2 macrophages (scale bar = 20 μm). The green signal represents the staining of activated ornithine decarboxylase, and the blue signal represents the DAPI-stained nuclei. *P < .05; **P < .01; ***P < .001. Bars indicate mean and SEM of triplicate experiments and show a representative experiment of at least 3 independent experiments performed for each panel

Application: WB    Species: human    Sample: M2 macrophages

FIGURE 4|IL-33 promotes M2 macrophage polarization via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activation.E, iNOS and ARG1 protein levels were determined by Western blot in IL-33–induced M2 macrophage with or without knocking down ODC. *P < .05; **P < .01; ***P < .001. Bars indicate mean and SEM of triplicate experiments and show a representative experiment of at least 3 independent experiments performed for each panel

6). XIAOPI formula inhibits the pre-metastatic niche formation in breast cancer via suppressing TAMs/CXCL1 signaling. Cell Communication and Signaling, 2020 (PubMed: 32213179) [IF=8.4]

Application: WB    Species: mouse    Sample: RAW264.7 cells

Fig. 1| XIAOPI formula suppresses the polarization of M2 macrophages and CXCL1 expression.a The phenotype changes of RAW264.7 induced by 40 ng/ ml IL-4 and 40 ng/ml IL-13.

7). Protective effects of Da-cheng-qi decoction in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage. Phytomedicine, 2021 (PubMed: 34217968) [IF=7.9]

Application: WB    Species: Rat    Sample: glial cells

Fig. 5. DCQ and emodin reduced microglia activation after ICH. The results of the beam balance test (A) and elevated body swing test (B) were used to evaluate the neurological deficits of the Sham, SOL, EMO and DCQ rats (n = 15/group). Prussian blue staining was used to evaluate the iron deposition of rats (C, Bar = 50 μm). The intensities of prussian blue positive were analysed by ImageJ (D). Network showed the DEPs related to the lysosome and proteasome in DCQ/SOL (E). The DEPs involved in glial cell activation in CPu of DCQ rats were showed in (F). Prussian blue positive ameboid microglia were shown by immunohistochemical staining with Iba1 (a marker of microglia) (G, Bar = 50 μm). Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α and Arg1 in the CPu (H) and Hp (J) were measured by Western blotting (n = 6) and quantitatively analysed (I, K). Data were presented as means ± SEM. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001 vs. Sham. # p < 0.05 vs. SOL. ▴ p < 0.05 vs. EMO.

8). Naringenin promoted spinal microglia M2 polarization in rat model of cancer-induced bone pain via regulating AMPK/PGC-1α signaling axis. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 2022 (PubMed: 35856853) [IF=7.5]

9). Reduced expression of CENP-E contributes to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and is associated with adverse clinical features. BIOMEDICINE & PHARMACOTHERAPY, 2020 (PubMed: 31881483) [IF=7.5]

Application: IHC    Species: mouse    Sample: tumor

Fig. 5.| Down regulation of CENP-E in HCC cells promoted tumor growth of in vivo.(C) Tumor sections were subjected to IHC staining, showing the increased expression of GPC-3 but no difference of ARG-1 expression in CENP-E-low-expressing tumors versus control tumors (ARG-1:P > 0.05, GPC-3:P < 0.05). 40× magnifications, scale bar 100 μm. Statistical significance was tested by Student’s t-test.

10). Endometriosis derived exosomal miR-301a-3p mediates macrophage polarization via regulating PTEN-PI3K axis. BIOMEDICINE & PHARMACOTHERAPY, 2022 (PubMed: 35124383) [IF=7.5]

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