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  • Product Name
    beta-Actin Antibody
  • Catalog No.
  • RRID
  • Source
  • Application
  • Reactivity
    Human, Mouse, Rat, Pig, Zebrafish, Bovine, Sheep, Rabbit, Goat, Guinea pig, Dog, Monkey, Hamster, Chicken, Fish
  • UniProt
  • Mol.Wt
  • Concentration
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Product Information

Alternative Names:Expand▼

ACTB;Actin; cytoplasmic 1; Beta-actin; Beta actin; BRWS1; Actin; beta; Beta cytoskeletal actin; PS1TP5-binding protein 1; PS1TP5BP1;


WB: 1:3000-1:10000, IHC: 1:200, IF/ICC: 1:200


Human, Mouse, Rat, Pig, Zebrafish, Bovine, Sheep, Rabbit, Goat, Guinea pig, Dog, Monkey, Hamster, Chicken, Fish





Clone Number:





beta-Actin Mouse Monoclonal antibody detects endogenous levels of total beta-Actin protein.


Please cite this product as: Affinity Biosciences Cat# T0022, RRID:AB_2839417.





Storage Condition and Buffer:

Mouse IgG1 in phosphate buffered saline (without Mg2+ and Ca2+), pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol.Store at -20 °C.Stable for 24 months from date of receipt.

Immunogen Information


Full-length beta-Actin protein of human.


>>Visit The Human Protein Atlas

Gene ID:

Gene Name:


Molecular Weight:

Observed Mol.Wt.: 43kD.
Predicted Mol.Wt.: 42kDa(Calculated)..

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton. Localized in cytoplasmic mRNP granules containing untranslated mRNAs.


beta-Actin is one of six different actin isoforms that have been identified. The actin molecules found in cells of various species and tissues tend to be very similar in their immunological and physical properties. Therefore, Antibodies against beta-Actin are useful as loading controls for Western Blotting. However it should be noted that levels of beta-Actin may not be stable in certain cells. For example, expression of beta-Actin in adipose tissue is very low and therefore it should not be used as loading control for these tissues.


Research Background


Actin is a highly conserved protein that polymerizes to produce filaments that form cross-linked networks in the cytoplasm of cells (PubMed:29581253). Actin exists in both monomeric (G-actin) and polymeric (F-actin) forms, both forms playing key functions, such as cell motility and contraction (PubMed:29581253). In addition to their role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, G- and F-actin also localize in the nucleus, and regulate gene transcription and motility and repair of damaged DNA (PubMed:29925947).

Post-translational Modifications:


Oxidation of Met-44 and Met-47 by MICALs (MICAL1, MICAL2 or MICAL3) to form methionine sulfoxide promotes actin filament depolymerization. MICAL1 and MICAL2 produce the (R)-S-oxide form. The (R)-S-oxide form is reverted by MSRB1 and MSRB2, which promote actin repolymerization.

Monomethylation at Lys-84 (K84me1) regulates actin-myosin interaction and actomyosin-dependent processes (PubMed:23673617). Demethylation by ALKBH4 is required for maintaining actomyosin dynamics supporting normal cleavage furrow ingression during cytokinesis and cell migration (PubMed:23673617).

Methylated at His-73 by SETD3 (PubMed:30526847, PubMed:30626964, PubMed:30785395). Methylation at His-73 is required for smooth muscle contraction of the laboring uterus during delivery (By similarity).

N-terminal acetylation by NAA80 affects actin filament depolymerization and elongation, including elongation driven by formins (PubMed:29581253). In contrast, filament nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex is not affected (PubMed:29581253).

(Microbial infection) Monomeric actin is cross-linked by V.cholerae toxins RtxA and VgrG1 in case of infection: bacterial toxins mediate the cross-link between Lys-50 of one monomer and Glu-270 of another actin monomer, resulting in formation of highly toxic actin oligomers that cause cell rounding (PubMed:19015515). The toxin can be highly efficient at very low concentrations by acting on formin homology family proteins: toxic actin oligomers bind with high affinity to formins and adversely affect both nucleation and elongation abilities of formins, causing their potent inhibition in both profilin-dependent and independent manners (PubMed:26228148).

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm>Cytoskeleton. Nucleus.
Note: Localized in cytoplasmic mRNP granules containing untranslated mRNAs.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte

Subunit Structure:

Polymerization of globular actin (G-actin) leads to a structural filament (F-actin) in the form of a two-stranded helix (PubMed:28604741, PubMed:16685646). Each actin can bind to 4 others (PubMed:28604741, PubMed:16685646). Identified in a IGF2BP1-dependent mRNP granule complex containing untranslated mRNAs (PubMed:17289661). Component of the BAF complex, which includes at least actin (ACTB), ARID1A, ARID1B/BAF250, SMARCA2, SMARCA4/BRG1, ACTL6A/BAF53, ACTL6B/BAF53B, SMARCE1/BAF57 SMARCC1/BAF155, SMARCC2/BAF170, SMARCB1/SNF5/INI1, and one or more of SMARCD1/BAF60A, SMARCD2/BAF60B, or SMARCD3/BAF60C (PubMed:18765789). In muscle cells, the BAF complex also contains DPF3 (PubMed:18765789). Found in a complex with XPO6, Ran, ACTB and PFN1 (PubMed:14592989). Interacts with XPO6 and EMD (PubMed:15328537). Interacts with ERBB2 (PubMed:21555369). Interacts with GCSAM (PubMed:17823310). Interacts with TBC1D21 (By similarity). Interacts with CPNE1 (via VWFA domain) and CPNE4 (via VWFA domain) (By similarity). Interacts with DHX9 (via C-terminus); this interaction is direct and mediates the attachment to nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes (PubMed:11687588). Interacts with FAM107A (PubMed:21969592, PubMed:28604741).


Belongs to the actin family.

Research Fields

Research Fields:

· Cellular Processes > Transport and catabolism > Phagosome.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Focal adhesion.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Tight junction.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Apoptosis.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Adherens junction.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cell motility > Regulation of actin cytoskeleton.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Hippo signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Rap1 signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Proteoglycans in cancer.
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Hepatocellular carcinoma.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC).
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Viral myocarditis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Salmonella infection.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Vibrio cholerae infection.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Shigellosis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Influenza A.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells.
· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Platelet activation.(View pathway)
· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Leukocyte transendothelial migration.(View pathway)
· Organismal Systems > Digestive system > Gastric acid secretion.
· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Thyroid hormone signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Oxytocin signaling pathway.

Reference Citations:

1). Bian WX et al. Binding of cellular nucleolin with the viral core RNA G-quadruplex structure suppresses HCV replication. Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Nov 20 (PubMed: 30462330) [IF=11.501]

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:hepatoma cell lines

(B) G4 pull-down and Western blot. The fourth lane represents cell lysates directly used for western blot. β-actin was used as an internal control.

2). Wu H et al. Breaking the vicious loop between inflammation, oxidative stress and coagulation, a novel anti-thrombus insight of nattokinase by inhibiting LPS-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. Redox Biol 2020 Mar 11;32:101500 (PubMed: 32193146) [IF=9.986]

3). Wang Y et al. The interaction of YBX1 with G3BP1 promotes renal cell carcinoma cell metastasis via YBX1/G3BP1-SPP1- NF-κB signaling axis. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2019 Sep 3;38(1):386 (PubMed: 31481087) [IF=7.068]

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:A498

(b). β-actin was used as loading control, respectively. ACHN and A498 cells stably expressing shYBX1 were subjected to Migration

4). Tian X et al. Long noncoding RNA LINC00662 promotes M2 macrophage polarization and hepatocellular carcinoma progression via activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Mol Oncol 2020 Feb;14(2):462-483 (PubMed: 31785055) [IF=6.574]

5). Yi S et al. Tcf12, A Member of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors, Mediates Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro and In Vivo. Stem Cells 2017 Feb;35(2):386-397 (PubMed: 27574032) [IF=6.022]

6). Yi S et al. Tcf12, A Member of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors, Mediates Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro and In Vivo. Stem Cells 2017 Feb;35(2):386-397 (PubMed: 27574032) [IF=6.022]

Application: WB    Species:Not available;    Sample:Not available

7). Ding L et al. Noncoding transcribed ultraconserved region (T-UCR) UC.48+ is a novel regulator of high-fat diet induced myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 11 (PubMed: 30417395) [IF=5.546]

8). Yang YF et al. Ficolin-A/2, acting as a new regulator of macrophage polarization, mediates the inflammatory response in experimental mouse colitis. Immunology 2017 Aug;151(4):433-450 (PubMed: 28380665) [IF=5.016]

Application: WB    Species:mouse;    Sample:Not available

Figure 7. FCN-A promoted the M1 polarization of BMDMs through a TLR4/MyD88-dependent pathway in vitro. (a) The protein expressions of the purified GST-FCN-A and GST were determined by SDS-PAGE. (b) The extracted membrane proteins from RAW264.7 cells were incubated with the purified GST-FCN-A or GST proteins. Co-IP analysis of the interaction between TLR4 of macrophage and GST-FCN-A was performed by using anti-TLR4. Rabbit IgG was used as a negative control in co-IP. (c, e) BMDMs, isolated from WT, TLR4-/- or MyD88-/- mice, were stimulated with FCN-A (10g/mL) for 24 h, then the expressions of iNOS and Arg-1 from BMDMs were examined by Western blot analysis. (d, f) The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1in cell lysates, and secreted IL-6, TNF- were detected by ELISA. (g, h) Western blot analysis of p-IRAK1, p-p65, p-ERK1/2, and p-JNK in the BMDM lysates of TLR4-/-, MyD88-/- or WT after stimulation with FCN-A for 0-45 min. In d and f, values are mean ± [SEM] from three independent experiments.

9). Chao H et al. RAB14 activates MARK signaling to promote bladder tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 2019 Feb 27 (PubMed: 30809635) [IF=4.603]

10). Meng X;Zhang J;Wu H;Yu D;Fang X; et al. Akkermansia muciniphila Aspartic Protease Amuc_1434* Inhibits Human Colorectal Cancer LS174T Cell Viability via TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis Pathway. Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 11;21(9):E3385. (PubMed: 32403433) [IF=4.556]

11). Liang X et al. Rictor regulates the vasculogenic mimicry of melanoma via the AKT-MMP-2/9 pathway. J Cell Mol Med 2017 Dec;21(12):3579-3591 (PubMed: 28699701) [IF=4.486]

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:Not available

Fig. 3 Knockdown of Rictor inhibits melanoma cells proliferation and blocked the cell cycle in G2/M phase. (A) Cell viability of A375 and MUM-2B cells after Rictor knockdown evaluated by MTT assay (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01). (B) Cell cycle of A375 and MUM-2B cells after Rictor knockdown examined by FCM. (C) The expression of p-CDK2 and p-Histone H3 induced by knockdown of Rictor.

12). Zhang W et al. Down-regulating Myoferlin inhibits the vasculogenic mimicry of melanoma via decreasing MMP-2 and inducing mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. J Cell Mol Med 2018 Mar;22(3):1743-1754 (PubMed: 29164766) [IF=4.486]

13). Rajala A;Soni K;Rajala RVS; et al. Metabolic and Non-metabolic Roles of Pyruvate Kinase M2 Isoform in Diabetic Retinopathy. Sci Rep 2020 May 4;10(1):7456. (PubMed: 32366925) [IF=3.998]

14). Lei X et al. The effect of fluid shear stress on fibroblasts and stem cells on plane and groove topographies. Cell Adh Migr 2020 Dec;14(1):12-23 (PubMed: 31942821) [IF=3.694]

15). Feng Y et al. Neuroprotective Effects of Resatorvid Against Traumatic Brain Injury in Rat: Involvement of Neuronal Autophagy and TLR4 Signaling Pathway. Cell Mol Neurobiol 2017 Jan;37(1):155-168 (PubMed: 26961544) [IF=3.606]

Application: WB    Species:rat;    Sample:rat hippocampus

Fig. 7 a Western blot analysis demonstrates levels of TNF-a and IL-1b in the hippocampus of rats at 12, 24, and 48 h following TBI or sham operation (n = 5/group). b Densitometry of the TNF-a and IL-1b band correlated to the b-actin band. The bars represent the mean ± SE (n = 5/group). The results demonstrated that a significant increase of TNF-a and IL-1b expression in the TBI group (*p\0.01 vs. sham group), and treatment with TAK-242 significantly downregulated the level of TNF-a and IL-1b protein expression at 12, 24, and 48 h following TBI (# p\0.05 vs. TBI group). TNF-a, tumor necrosis factor-a; IL-1b, interleukin-1b

16). Tu X et al. Pretreatment of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Exerts Neuroprotective Effect in Murine Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic Brain Injury by Its Antiapoptotic Property. Cell Mol Neurobiol 2019 May 30 (PubMed: 31147852) [IF=3.606]

17). Wang Z et al. The role of MAPK signaling pathway in the Her-2-positive meningiomas. Oncol Rep 2016 Aug;36(2):685-95 (PubMed: 27279438) [IF=3.417]

Application: WB    Species:Not available;    Sample:Not available

18). Guo J et al. Tumor-associated macrophages induce the expression of FOXQ1 to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in gastric cancer cells. Oncol Rep 2017 Oct;38(4):2003-2010 (PubMed: 28791370) [IF=3.417]

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:Not available

Figure 2. Co-culture with TAMs induces EMT in GC cells. (A) The EMT markers in MKN45 and MKN74 cells were analyzed using western blotting after being co-cultured with THP-1 cells. (B and C) The EMT markers in MKN45 and MKN74 cells were analyzed by RT-PCR after being co-cultured with THP-1 cells; * P

19). Zhang J et al. FOXQ1 promotes gastric cancer metastasis through upregulation of Snail. Oncol Rep 2016 Jun;35(6):3607-13 (PubMed: 27109028) [IF=3.417]

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:BGC-823 cell

Figure 4. Overexpression of FOXQ1 in BGC-823 cell line resulted in EMT and increased invasiveness. To determine whether FOXQ1 promotes the EMT to increase cell invasion, the expression levels of FOXQ1, E-cadherin and vimentin were detected via western blotting and qRT-PCR. The results revealed that FOXQ1 could increase EMT, which decreased E-cadherin expression and increased vimentin expression (* P

20). Wang S et al. Protective mechanism of shenmai on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion through the energy metabolism pathway. Am J Transl Res 2019 Jul 15;11(7):4046-4062 (PubMed: 31396317) [IF=3.375]

21). Yuan F et al. Leptin Signaling in the Carotid Body Regulates a Hypoxic Ventilatory Response Through Altering TASK Channel Expression. Front Physiol 2018 Mar 27;9:249 (PubMed: 29636698) [IF=3.367]

22). Chao H et al. MEX3C regulates lipid metabolism to promote bladder tumorigenesis through JNK pathway. Onco Targets Ther 2019 May 1;12:3285-3294 (PubMed: 31118679) [IF=3.337]

23). Feng Y et al. Resveratrol attenuates neuronal autophagy and inflammatory injury by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in experimental traumatic brain injury. Int J Mol Med 2016 Apr;37(4):921-30 (PubMed: 26936125) [IF=3.098]

Application: WB    Species:rat;    Sample:Not available

24). Shao Q et al. MicroRNA-139-5p affects cisplatin sensitivity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by regulating the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Gene 2018 Apr 30;652:48-58 (PubMed: 29427737)

25). Qiu J et al. Neonatal exposure to bisphenol A advances pubertal development in female rats. Mol Reprod Dev 2020 Feb 28 (PubMed: 32109339)

Application: WB    Species:rat;    Sample:Not available

FIGURE 4 Effects of BPA on the hypothalamic GnRH protein expression in female rats on PND35. (a) Depicted representative bands of GnRH in different groups.

26). Xia J et al. Treadmill exercise decreases β-amyloid burden in APP/PS1 transgenic mice involving regulation of the unfolded protein response. Neurosci Lett 2019 Mar 21;703:125-131 (PubMed: 30905823)

27). Jiang Q et al. Lim Kinase1 regulates seizure activity via modulating actin dynamics. Neurosci Lett 2020 Apr 4:134936 (PubMed: 32259557)

28). Yan QW et al. Effects of treadmill exercise on mitochondrial fusion and fission in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Neurosci Lett 2019 Feb 20 (PubMed: 30796962)

29). Xia G et al. ROS‑mediated autophagy through the AMPK signaling pathway protects INS‑1 cells from human islet amyloid polypeptide‑induced cytotoxicity. Mol Med Rep 2018 Sep;18(3):2744-2752 (PubMed: 30015901)

30). Tian YM et al. Elevated expression of the leptin receptor ob‑R may contribute to inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis. Mol Med Rep 2019 Nov;20(5):4706-4712 (PubMed: 31702041)

31). Wang C et al. Cytoprotective effects of diosmetin against hydrogen peroxide-induced L02 cell oxidative damage via activation of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep 2018 May;17(5):7331-7338 (PubMed: 29568961)

32). Luo L et al. Decreased expression of ubiquilin‑1 following neonatal hypoxia‑ischemic brain injury in mice. Mol Med Rep 2019 Apr 15 (PubMed: 31059032)

33). Wu L et al. KIF17 mediates the learning and memory impairment in offspring induced by maternal exposure to propofol during middle pregnancy. Mol Med Rep 2018 Apr;17(4):5428-5434 (PubMed: 29393422)

34). Yao Y et al. Elevated TRIM23 expression predicts poor prognosis in Chinese gastric cancer. Pathol Res Pract 2018 Dec;214(12):2062-2068 (PubMed: 30477642)

35). Zhao YY et al. Fluid Shear Stress Induces Endothelial Cell Injury via Protein Kinase C Alpha-Mediated Repression of p120-Catenin and Vascular Endothelial Cadherin In Vitro. World Neurosurg 2020 Jan 14 (PubMed: 31953100)

36). Liu Y;Xi Y;Chen G;Wu X;He M; et al. URG4 mediates cell proliferation and cell cycle in osteosarcoma via GSK3β/β-catenin/cyclin D1 signaling pathway. J Orthop Surg Res 2020 Jun 18;15(1):226. (PubMed: 32552851)

37). Zhang W et al. Microencapsulated olfactory ensheathing-cell transplantation reduces pain in rats by inhibiting P2X4 receptor overexpression in the dorsal root ganglion. Neuroreport 2019 Jan 16;30(2):120-126 (PubMed: 30507759)

38). Duan Z et al. Endothelin-1-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin in human myometrial fibroblasts. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2018 Mar;44(3):540-546 (PubMed: 29271089)

39). Wang S et al. The Effects of Silencing the Her2 Gene on Proliferation and Angiogenesis of Meningioma Cells in vivo and in vitro. Ann Clin Lab Sci 2018 Sep;48(5):580-586 (PubMed: 30373861)

40). Xiang XJ et al. MiR-1271 Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Invasion and EMT in Gastric Cancer by Targeting FOXQ1. Cell Physiol Biochem 2015;36(4):1382-94 (PubMed: 26159618)

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:human gastric cancer

Fig. 6. MiR-1271 inhibited gastric cancer cell migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. (A) Overexpression of miR-1271 could inhibit MGC-803 cell migration and invasion, whereas its downregulation in SGC-7901 cells increased the cell migration and invasion processes. (B) Western blots showed that overexpression of miR-1271 could upregulate E-cadherin and downregulate N-cadherin and vimentin expression in MGC-803 cells, whereas its downregulation had the opposite effect in SGC- 7901 cells. Three independent experiments were conducted. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01.

41). Xiaopeng Tang et al. Transferrin-dependent crosstalk between the intestinal tract and commensal microbes contributes for immune tolerance. biorxiv 2020 Mar 3

42). Zhou P et al. Combination therapy of PKCζ and COX-2 inhibitors synergistically suppress melanoma metastasis. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2017 Sep 2;36(1):115 (PubMed: 28865485)

Application: WB    Species:mouse;    Sample:B16F10

Fig. 5 The expression of p-PKCζ, p-cofilin and COX-2 after combined treatment of J-4 and Celecoxib. (a) Western blotting images of p-cofilin and COX-2 in B16-F10 cells with various treatments for 24 h. (b) Western blotting images of p-cofilin and COX-2 in A375 cells with various treatments for 24 h. (c) Relative mRNA level of PKCζ and COX-2 determined via RT-PCR. (d) The expression of EMT markers, E-Cadherin and Vimentin, and MMP-2/MMP-9 was affected in B16-F10 and A375 cells after various treatments for 24 h. J-4: 25 μM; Celecoxib: 25 μM. * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01

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Catalog Number :

(Blocking peptide available as T0022-BP)

Price/Size :

Tips: For phospho antibody, we provide phospho peptide(0.5mg) and non-phospho peptide(0.5mg).

Function :

Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. This mechanism is useful when non-specific binding is an issue, for example, in Western blotting (immunoblot) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). By comparing the staining from the blocked antibody versus the antibody alone, one can see which staining is specific; Specific binding will be absent from the western blot or immunostaining performed with the neutralized antibody.

Format and storage :

Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 10 mg/ml.The purity is >90%,tested by HPLC and MS.Storage Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.

Precautions :

This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

P60709 as Substrate
Site PTM Type Enzyme
M1 Acetylation
D2 Acetylation
S14 Phosphorylation
C17 S-Nitrosylation
K18 Methylation
K18 Ubiquitination
S33 Phosphorylation
K50 Acetylation
K50 Methylation
K50 Ubiquitination
S52 Phosphorylation
Y53 Phosphorylation
S60 Phosphorylation
K61 Acetylation
K61 Sumoylation
K61 Ubiquitination
T66 Phosphorylation
K68 Methylation
K68 Sumoylation
Y69 Phosphorylation
H73 Methylation
T77 Phosphorylation
K84 Methylation
K84 Sumoylation
K84 Ubiquitination
T89 Phosphorylation
Y91 Phosphorylation
T106 Phosphorylation
K113 Acetylation
K113 Sumoylation
K113 Ubiquitination
T120 Phosphorylation
Y143 Phosphorylation
S155 Phosphorylation
T160 Phosphorylation
T162 Phosphorylation
Y166 Phosphorylation
Y169 Phosphorylation
T186 Phosphorylation
Y188 Phosphorylation
K191 Acetylation
K191 Methylation
K191 Ubiquitination
T194 Phosphorylation
Y198 Phosphorylation
S199 Phosphorylation
T201 Phosphorylation
T202 Phosphorylation
T203 Phosphorylation
K213 Acetylation
K213 Ubiquitination
K215 Ubiquitination
C217 S-Nitrosylation
Y218 Phosphorylation
T229 Phosphorylation
S233 Phosphorylation
S235 Phosphorylation
K238 Ubiquitination
S239 Phosphorylation
Y240 Phosphorylation
T249 Phosphorylation
C257 S-Nitrosylation
S265 Phosphorylation
S271 Phosphorylation
C272 S-Nitrosylation
K284 Sumoylation
K284 Ubiquitination
C285 S-Nitrosylation
K291 Sumoylation
K291 Ubiquitination
Y294 Phosphorylation
T297 Phosphorylation
S300 Phosphorylation
T303 Phosphorylation
T304 Phosphorylation
Y306 Phosphorylation
K315 Acetylation
K315 Sumoylation
K315 Ubiquitination
T318 Phosphorylation
S323 Phosphorylation
T324 Phosphorylation
K326 Acetylation
K326 Methylation
K326 Sumoylation
K326 Ubiquitination
K328 Acetylation
K328 Sumoylation
K328 Ubiquitination
K336 Sumoylation
S348 Phosphorylation
K359 Ubiquitination
Y362 Phosphorylation
S365 Phosphorylation
S368 Phosphorylation
K373 Ubiquitination
C374 S-Nitrosylation
IMPORTANT: For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted antibody in 5% w/v milk , 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween®20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.

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