Cartilage-inducing factor; CED; Differentiation inhibiting factor; DPD1; LAP; Latency-associated peptide; Prepro transforming growth factor beta 1; TGF beta 1; TGF beta; TGF beta 1 protein; TGF-beta 1 protein; TGF-beta-1; TGF-beta-5; TGF-beta1; TGFB; Tgfb-1; tgfb1; TGFB1_HUMAN; TGFbeta; TGFbeta1; Transforming Growth Factor b1; Transforming Growth Factor beta 1; Transforming growth factor beta 1a; transforming growth factor beta-1; transforming growth factor, beta 1; Transforming Growth Factor-ß1;
WB: 1:500-1:2000, IHC: 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:200, ELISA(peptide) 1:20000-1:40000
Human, Mouse, Rat
Pig(100%), Bovine(100%), Horse(100%), Sheep(100%), Dog(100%)
The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
TGF beta1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total TGF beta1.
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol.Store at -20 °C.Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.
A synthesized peptide derived from human TGF beta1, corresponding to a region within C-terminal amino acids.
Observed Mol.Wt.: 44kd,28kD.
Predicted Mol.Wt.: 45kDa.
Secreted > extracellular space > extracellular matrix.
Highly expressed in bone. Abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes and is increased in osteoarthritis (OA). Colocalizes with ASPN in chondrocytes within OA lesions of articular cartilage.
Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors.
10 20 30 40 50
MPPSGLRLLL LLLPLLWLLV LTPGRPAAGL STCKTIDMEL VKRKRIEAIR
60 70 80 90 100
GQILSKLRLA SPPSQGEVPP GPLPEAVLAL YNSTRDRVAG ESAEPEPEPE
110 120 130 140 150
ADYYAKEVTR VLMVETHNEI YDKFKQSTHS IYMFFNTSEL REAVPEPVLL
160 170 180 190 200
SRAELRLLRL KLKVEQHVEL YQKYSNNSWR YLSNRLLAPS DSPEWLSFDV
210 220 230 240 250
TGVVRQWLSR GGEIEGFRLS AHCSCDSRDN TLQVDINGFT TGRRGDLATI
260 270 280 290 300
HGMNRPFLLL MATPLERAQH LQSSRHRRAL DTNYCFSSTE KNCCVRQLYI
310 320 330 340 350
DFRKDLGWKW IHEPKGYHAN FCLGPCPYIW SLDTQYSKVL ALYNQHNPGA
360 370 380 390
SAAPCCVPQA LEPLPIVYYV GRKPKVEQLS NMIVRSCKCS
Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts (By similarity). Stimulates sustained production of collagen through the activation of CREB3L1 by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) (PubMed:25310401). Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development. At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells. Mediates SMAD2/3 activation by inducing its phosphorylation and subsequent translocation to the nucleus (PubMed:25893292). Can induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration in various cell types (PubMed:25893292).
Glycosylated.The precursor is cleaved into mature TGF-beta-1 and LAP, which remains non-covalently linked to mature TGF-beta-1 rendering it inactive.
Extracellular region or secreted;
Homodimer; disulfide-linked, or heterodimer with TGFB2 (By similarity). Secreted and stored as a biologically inactive form in the extracellular matrix in a 290 kDa complex (large latent TGF-beta1 complex) containing the TGFB1 homodimer, the latency-associated peptide (LAP), and the latent TGFB1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1). The complex without LTBP1 is known as the'small latent TGF-beta1 complex'. Dissociation of the TGFB1 from LAP is required for growth factor activation and biological activity. Release of the large latent TGF-beta1 complex from the extracellular matrix is carried out by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP3 (By similarity). May interact with THSD4; this interaction may lead to sequestration by FBN1 microfibril assembly and attenuation of TGFB signaling. Interacts with the serine proteases, HTRA1 and HTRA3: the interaction with either inhibits TGFB1-mediated signaling. The HTRA protease activity is required for this inhibition (By similarity). Latency-associated peptide interacts with NREP; the interaction results in a decrease in TGFB1 autoinduction (By similarity). Interacts with CD109, DPT and ASPN. Interacts (via processed form (LAP)) with HSP90AB1; inhibits latent TGFB1 activation (PubMed:20599762).
The 'straitjacket' and 'arm' domains encircle the growth factor monomers and are fastened together by strong bonding between Lys-56 and Tyr-103/Tyr-104. Activation of TGF-beta1 requires the binding of integrin alpha-V to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-beta binding proteins. The sheer physical force unfastens the straitjacket and releases the active growth factor dimer (By similarity).Belongs to the TGF-beta family.
· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Cell cycle.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Cellular senescence.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > MAPK signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Hippo signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > FoxO signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > TGF-beta signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signaling molecules and interaction > Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Pancreatic cancer.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Renal cell carcinoma.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Pathways in cancer.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Gastric cancer.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Colorectal cancer.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Proteoglycans in cancer.
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Hepatocellular carcinoma.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Rheumatoid arthritis.
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Chronic myeloid leukemia.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Amoebiasis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Hepatitis B.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis).
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Tuberculosis.
· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Malaria.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Leishmaniasis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > HTLV-I infection.
· Human Diseases > Endocrine and metabolic diseases > Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Toxoplasmosis.
· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Intestinal immune network for IgA production.(View pathway)
· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Relaxin signaling pathway.
· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Th17 cell differentiation.(View pathway)
· Organismal Systems > Development > Osteoclast differentiation.(View pathway)
Application: WB Species:human; Sample:Not available
Figure 6. PnAg regulates gp130/Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway (A) and (B) NIH-3T3 and HaCat Cells were treated with PnAg at different concentrations and cell viability was tested using MTT analysis. (C) Wound healing assay reflected the effect of PnAg on cell migration. (D) Binding mode of PnAg in the active pocket of gp130. (E) and (F) MMPs activity and expression levels of Stat3, VEGF, TGFB-1, and TGFB1 detected using zymographic and Western blot assays. (G) Diagram of the proposed function of PnAg in wound inflammation and re-epithelialization controls.
Application: IHC Species:rat; Sample:Not available
Figure 2. PnAg promotes wound healing in SD rats. (A) Photographs of rat skin full-thickness excision wounds on different post-excision days. (B) Change in wound areas of SD rats after treatment; (C) and (D) Expression levels of collagen I, NF-κB, TGF-ß, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in tissues on day 7 and 17 detected by immunohistochemistry. (E) Histogram of protein expression levels in these tissues. (F) and (G) Histomorphological changes in wound tissues stained by Masson trichrome and HE on day 17.
Application: WB Species:mouse; Sample:Not available
Figure 4. TLR4 orchestrates TGF-β/Smads signaling to promote pathogen-associated biliary fibrosis caused by Clonorchis sinensis. Livers from TLR4 wild and mutated mice infected with or without C. sinensis were harvested, and the sections of tissue containing bile ducts were homogenated for western-blot. (A–D): the relative expression of TGF-β1 (B), p-Smad2/3 (C) and BAMBI (D) were analyzed in the liver of TLR4wild/ TLR4mut mice infected with or without C. sinensis-infected by Western blotting. The blots of each group were run under the same experimental conditions and the images were from the same gel. The data were obtained from 3~5 mice of three-independent experiment. The values were expressed as mean±SEM.
Tips: For phospho antibody, we provide phospho peptide（0.5mg) and non-phospho peptide(0.5mg).
Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. This mechanism is useful when non-specific binding is an issue, for example, in Western blotting (immunoblot) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). By comparing the staining from the blocked antibody versus the antibody alone, one can see which staining is specific; Specific binding will be absent from the western blot or immunostaining performed with the neutralized antibody.
Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 10 mg/ml.The purity is >90%,tested by HPLC and MS.Storage Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.
This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.