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  • Product Name
    TGF beta1 Antibody
  • Catalog No.
    AF1027
  • RRID
    AB_2835389
  • Source
    Rabbit
  • Application
    WB,IHC,IF/ICC,ELISA
  • Reactivity
    Human, Mouse, Rat
  • Prediction
    Pig(100%), Bovine(100%), Horse(100%), Sheep(100%), Dog(100%)
  • UniProt
  • Mol.Wt
    (Observed)44kD,28kD; (Calculated)44kDa
  • Concentration
    1mg/ml
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Product Information

Alternative Names:Expand▼

Cartilage-inducing factor; CED; Differentiation inhibiting factor; DPD1; LAP; Latency-associated peptide; Prepro transforming growth factor beta 1; TGF beta 1; TGF beta; TGF beta 1 protein; TGF-beta 1 protein; TGF-beta-1; TGF-beta-5; TGF-beta1; TGFB; Tgfb-1; tgfb1; TGFB1_HUMAN; TGFbeta; TGFbeta1; Transforming Growth Factor b1; Transforming Growth Factor beta 1; Transforming growth factor beta 1a; transforming growth factor beta-1; transforming growth factor, beta 1; Transforming Growth Factor-ß1;

Applications:

WB: 1:500-1:2000, IHC: 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:200, ELISA(peptide) 1:20000-1:40000

Reactivity:

Human, Mouse, Rat

Predicted Reactivity:

Pig(100%), Bovine(100%), Horse(100%), Sheep(100%), Dog(100%)

Source:

Rabbit

Clonality:

Polyclonal

Purification:

The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).

Specificity:

TGF beta1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total TGF beta1.

RRID:

AB_2835389
Please cite this product as: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF1027, RRID:AB_2835389.

Format:

Liquid

Concentration:

1mg/ml

Storage Condition and Buffer:

Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol.Store at -20 °C.Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.

Immunogen Information

Immunogen:

A synthesized peptide derived from human TGF beta1, corresponding to a region within C-terminal amino acids.

Uniprot:



>>Visit The Human Protein Atlas

Gene ID:

Gene Name:

TGFB1

Molecular Weight:

Observed Mol.Wt.: (Observed)44kD,28kD.
Predicted Mol.Wt.: (Calculated)44kDa.

Subcellular Location:

Secreted > extracellular space > extracellular matrix.

Tissue Specificity:

P01137 TGFB1_HUMAN:
Highly expressed in bone (PubMed:11746498, PubMed:17827158). Abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes and is increased in osteoarthritis (OA) (PubMed:11746498, PubMed:17827158). Colocalizes with ASPN in chondrocytes within OA lesions of articular cartilage (PubMed:17827158).

Description:

Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors.

Sequence:
MPPSGLRLLLLLLPLLWLLVLTPGRPAAGLSTCKTIDMELVKRKRIEAIRGQILSKLRLASPPSQGEVPPGPLPEAVLALYNSTRDRVAGESAEPEPEPEADYYAKEVTRVLMVETHNEIYDKFKQSTHSIYMFFNTSELREAVPEPVLLSRAELRLLRLKLKVEQHVELYQKYSNNSWRYLSNRLLAPSDSPEWLSFDVTGVVRQWLSRGGEIEGFRLSAHCSCDSRDNTLQVDINGFTTGRRGDLATIHGMNRPFLLLMATPLERAQHLQSSRHRRALDTNYCFSSTEKNCCVRQLYIDFRKDLGWKWIHEPKGYHANFCLGPCPYIWSLDTQYSKVLALYNQHNPGASAAPCCVPQALEPLPIVYYVGRKPKVEQLSNMIVRSCKCS

Research Background

Function:

Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein: Precursor of the Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chains, which constitute the regulatory and active subunit of TGF-beta-1, respectively.

Required to maintain the Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chain in a latent state during storage in extracellular matrix (PubMed:28117447). Associates non-covalently with TGF-beta-1 and regulates its activation via interaction with 'milieu molecules', such as LTBP1, LRRC32/GARP and LRRC33/NRROS, that control activation of TGF-beta-1 (PubMed:2022183, PubMed:8617200, PubMed:8939931, PubMed:19750484, PubMed:22278742, PubMed:19651619). Interaction with LRRC33/NRROS regulates activation of TGF-beta-1 in macrophages and microglia (Probable). Interaction with LRRC32/GARP controls activation of TGF-beta-1 on the surface of activated regulatory T-cells (Tregs) (PubMed:19750484, PubMed:22278742, PubMed:19651619). Interaction with integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8) results in distortion of the Latency-associated peptide chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-1 (PubMed:22278742, PubMed:28117447).

Transforming growth factor beta-1: Multifunctional protein that regulates the growth and differentiation of various cell types and is involved in various processes, such as normal development, immune function, microglia function and responses to neurodegeneration (By similarity). Activation into mature form follows different steps: following cleavage of the proprotein in the Golgi apparatus, Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chains remain non-covalently linked rendering TGF-beta-1 inactive during storage in extracellular matrix (PubMed:29109152). At the same time, LAP chain interacts with 'milieu molecules', such as LTBP1, LRRC32/GARP and LRRC33/NRROS that control activation of TGF-beta-1 and maintain it in a latent state during storage in extracellular milieus (PubMed:2022183, PubMed:8617200, PubMed:8939931, PubMed:19750484, PubMed:22278742, PubMed:19651619). TGF-beta-1 is released from LAP by integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8): integrin-binding to LAP stabilizes an alternative conformation of the LAP bowtie tail and results in distortion of the LAP chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-1 (PubMed:22278742, PubMed:28117447). Once activated following release of LAP, TGF-beta-1 acts by binding to TGF-beta receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), which transduce signal (PubMed:20207738). While expressed by many cells types, TGF-beta-1 only has a very localized range of action within cell environment thanks to fine regulation of its activation by Latency-associated peptide chain (LAP) and 'milieu molecules' (By similarity). Plays an important role in bone remodeling: acts as a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts (By similarity). Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner (By similarity). At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development (By similarity). At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells (By similarity). Stimulates sustained production of collagen through the activation of CREB3L1 by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) (PubMed:25310401). Mediates SMAD2/3 activation by inducing its phosphorylation and subsequent translocation to the nucleus (PubMed:25893292, PubMed:29483653, PubMed:30696809). Can induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration in various cell types (PubMed:25893292, PubMed:30696809).

Post-translational Modifications:

Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein: The precursor proprotein is cleaved in the Golgi apparatus by FURIN to form Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) and Latency-associated peptide (LAP) chains, which remain non-covalently linked, rendering TGF-beta-1 inactive.

N-glycosylated (PubMed:3162913, PubMed:2493139, PubMed:28117447). Deglycosylation leads to activation of Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1); mechanisms triggering deglycosylation-driven activation of TGF-beta-1 are however unclear (PubMed:2493139).

Subcellular Location:

Secreted>Extracellular space>Extracellular matrix.

Secreted.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte

Tissue Specificity:

Highly expressed in bone (PubMed:11746498, PubMed:17827158). Abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes and is increased in osteoarthritis (OA) (PubMed:11746498, PubMed:17827158). Colocalizes with ASPN in chondrocytes within OA lesions of articular cartilage (PubMed:17827158).

Subunit Structure:

Homodimer; disulfide-linked (PubMed:20207738, PubMed:25209176, PubMed:28117447, PubMed:29109152). Interacts with the serine proteases, HTRA1 and HTRA3: the interaction with either inhibits TGFB1-mediated signaling. The HTRA protease activity is required for this inhibition (By similarity). May interact with THSD4; this interaction may lead to sequestration by FBN1 microfibril assembly and attenuation of TGFB signaling (By similarity). Interacts with CD109, DPT and ASPN (PubMed:9895299, PubMed:16754747, PubMed:17827158). Latency-associated peptide: Homodimer; disulfide-linked (PubMed:28117447, PubMed:29109152). Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chain; interaction is non-covalent and maintains (TGF-beta-1) in a latent state; each Latency-associated peptide (LAP) monomer interacts with TGF-beta-1 in the other monomer (PubMed:29109152). Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with LTBP1; leading to regulate activation of TGF-beta-1 (PubMed:2022183, PubMed:8617200, PubMed:8939931). Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with LRRC32/GARP; leading to regulate activation of TGF-beta-1 on the surface of activated regulatory T-cells (Tregs) (PubMed:19750484, PubMed:22278742, PubMed:19651619). Interacts with LRRC33/NRROS; leading to regulate activation of TGF-beta-1 in macrophages and microglia (Probable). Latency-associated peptide: Interacts (via cell attachment site) with integrins ITGAV and ITGB6 (ITGAV:ITGB6), leading to release of the active TGF-beta-1 (PubMed:22278742, PubMed:28117447). Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with NREP; the interaction results in a decrease in TGFB1 autoinduction (By similarity). Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with HSP90AB1; inhibits latent TGFB1 activation (PubMed:20599762). Transforming growth factor beta-1: Homodimer; disulfide-linked (PubMed:20207738, PubMed:25209176, PubMed:28117447, PubMed:29109152). Transforming growth factor beta-1: Interacts with TGF-beta receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), leading to signal transduction (PubMed:20207738).

Similarity:

The 'straitjacket' and 'arm' domains encircle the Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) monomers and are fastened together by strong bonding between Lys-56 and Tyr-103/Tyr-104.

The cell attachment site motif mediates binding to integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8) (PubMed:28117447). The motif locates to a long loop in the arm domain called the bowtie tail (PubMed:28117447). Integrin-binding stabilizes an alternative conformation of the bowtie tail (PubMed:28117447). Activation by integrin requires force application by the actin cytoskeleton, which is resisted by the 'milieu molecules' (such as LTBP1, LRRC32/GARP and/or LRRC33/NRROS), resulting in distortion of the prodomain and release of the active TGF-beta-1 (PubMed:28117447).

Belongs to the TGF-beta family.

Research Fields

Research Fields:

· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Cell cycle.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Cellular senescence.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > MAPK signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Hippo signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > FoxO signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > TGF-beta signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signaling molecules and interaction > Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Pancreatic cancer.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Renal cell carcinoma.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Pathways in cancer.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Gastric cancer.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Colorectal cancer.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Proteoglycans in cancer.
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Hepatocellular carcinoma.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Rheumatoid arthritis.
· Human Diseases > Cardiovascular diseases > Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Chronic myeloid leukemia.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Amoebiasis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Hepatitis B.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis).
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Tuberculosis.
· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Malaria.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Leishmaniasis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > HTLV-I infection.
· Human Diseases > Endocrine and metabolic diseases > Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Toxoplasmosis.
· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Intestinal immune network for IgA production.(View pathway)
· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Relaxin signaling pathway.
· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Th17 cell differentiation.(View pathway)
· Organismal Systems > Development > Osteoclast differentiation.(View pathway)

Reference Citations:

1). Ai XY et al. Phenytoin silver: a new nanocompound for promoting dermal wound healing via comprehensive pharmacological action. Theranostics 2017 Jan 5;7(2):425-435 (PubMed: 28255340) [IF=8.063]

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:Not available

Figure 6. PnAg regulates gp130/Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway (A) and (B) NIH-3T3 and HaCat Cells were treated with PnAg at different concentrations and cell viability was tested using MTT analysis. (C) Wound healing assay reflected the effect of PnAg on cell migration. (D) Binding mode of PnAg in the active pocket of gp130. (E) and (F) MMPs activity and expression levels of Stat3, VEGF, TGFB-1, and TGFB1 detected using zymographic and Western blot assays. (G) Diagram of the proposed function of PnAg in wound inflammation and re-epithelialization controls.

Application: IHC    Species:rat;    Sample:Not available

Figure 2. PnAg promotes wound healing in SD rats. (A) Photographs of rat skin full-thickness excision wounds on different post-excision days. (B) Change in wound areas of SD rats after treatment; (C) and (D) Expression levels of collagen I, NF-κB, TGF-ß, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in tissues on day 7 and 17 detected by immunohistochemistry. (E) Histogram of protein expression levels in these tissues. (F) and (G) Histomorphological changes in wound tissues stained by Masson trichrome and HE on day 17.


2). Li X;Wu N;Chen Y;Tan J;Wang J;Geng L;Qin Y;Zhang Q; et al. Degradation of Different Molecular Weight Fucoidans and Their Inhibition of TGF-β1 Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Mouse Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells. Int J Biol Macromol 2020 May 15;151:545-553. (PubMed: 32057857) [IF=4.784]

3). Tao HC et al. CD47 Deficiency in Mice Exacerbates Chronic Fatty Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis Through Its Role in Regulating Hepatic Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism. Front Immunol 2020 Feb 25;11:148 (PubMed: 32158445) [IF=4.716]

4). Yan C et al. The roles of Toll-like receptor 4 in the pathogenesis of pathogen-associated biliary fibrosis caused by Clonorchis sinensis. Sci Rep 2017 Jun 20;7(1):3909 (PubMed: 28634394) [IF=4.011]

Application: WB    Species:mouse;    Sample:Not available

Figure 4. TLR4 orchestrates TGF-β/Smads signaling to promote pathogen-associated biliary fibrosis caused by Clonorchis sinensis. Livers from TLR4 wild and mutated mice infected with or without C. sinensis were harvested, and the sections of tissue containing bile ducts were homogenated for western-blot. (A–D): the relative expression of TGF-β1 (B), p-Smad2/3 (C) and BAMBI (D) were analyzed in the liver of TLR4wild/ TLR4mut mice infected with or without C. sinensis-infected by Western blotting. The blots of each group were run under the same experimental conditions and the images were from the same gel. The data were obtained from 3~5 mice of three-independent experiment. The values were expressed as mean±SEM.


5). Yin L et al. Over-Expression of Inhibitor of Differentiation 2 Attenuates Post-Infarct Cardiac Fibrosis Through Inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3/HIF-1α/IL-11 Signaling Pathway. Front Pharmacol 2019 Nov 13;10:1349 (PubMed: 31803053) [IF=3.845]

6). Zhang ZC et al. Highly Acylated Anthocyanins from Purple Sweet Potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) Alleviate Hyperuricemia and Kidney Inflammation in Hyperuricemic Mice: Possible Attenuation Effects on Allopurinol. J Agric Food Chem 2019 Jun 5;67(22):6202-6211 (PubMed: 31091873) [IF=3.571]

7). Hui Z et al. Silicosis decreases bone mineral density in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Jun 1;348:117-122 (PubMed: 29680408) [IF=3.564]

8). Huang J et al. Cancer cell-derived exosomes promote cell proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis of both normal lung fibroblasts and non-small cell lung cancer cell through delivering alpha-smooth muscle actin. Am J Transl Res 2019 Mar 15;11(3):1711-1723 (PubMed: 30972195) [IF=3.266]

9). Zhao J et al. TGF-β1 and connexin-43 expression in neurogenic bladder from rats with sacral spinal cord injury. Neurourol Urodyn 2018 Aug 2 (PubMed: 30070388)

10). Zhang Z et al. Effect of autogenous growth factors released from platelet concentrates on the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts: a comparative study. PeerJ 2019 Oct 31;7:e7984 (PubMed: 31687282)

11). Zhang T et al. Lipoxin A4 inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells -T6 cells by modulating profibrotic cytokines and NF-κB signaling pathway. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2019 Nov 4;146:106380 (PubMed: 31698141)

12). Qu Y et al. 12-lipoxygenase promotes tumor progress by TGF-β1-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition and predicts poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Manag Res 2019 Sep 11;11:8303-8313 (PubMed: 31571988)

13). Xia Y et al. Expression and significance of Sirt1 in renal allografts at the early stage of chronic renal allograft dysfunction. Transpl Immunol 2018 Jun;48:18-25 (PubMed: 29452170)

14). et al. The tannins from Punica granatum L, natural regulator of TGF-β1/Smad signaling activity improves nephrectomy and adriamycin induced focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in vivo.

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Catalog Number :

AF1027-BP
(Blocking peptide available as AF1027-BP)

Price/Size :

$350/1mg.
Tips: For phospho antibody, we provide phospho peptide(0.5mg) and non-phospho peptide(0.5mg).

Function :

Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. This mechanism is useful when non-specific binding is an issue, for example, in Western blotting (immunoblot) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). By comparing the staining from the blocked antibody versus the antibody alone, one can see which staining is specific; Specific binding will be absent from the western blot or immunostaining performed with the neutralized antibody.

Format and storage :

Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 10 mg/ml.The purity is >90%,tested by HPLC and MS.Storage Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.

Precautions :

This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

Pig
100%
Sheep
100%
Dog
100%
Bovine
100%
Horse
100%
Rabbit
0%
Chicken
0%
Xenopus
0%
Zebrafish
0%
High similarity Medium similarity Low similarity No similarity
P01137 as Substrate
Site PTM Type Enzyme
K42 Sumoylation
K42 Ubiquitination
K56 Ubiquitination
N82 N-Glycosylation
K106 Ubiquitination
K163 Ubiquitination
K291 Ubiquitination
K309 Ubiquitination
Y317 Phosphorylation
IMPORTANT: For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted antibody in 5% w/v milk , 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween®20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.

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