ARMD10; CD284; CD284 antigen; Homolog of Drosophila toll; hToll; TLR 4; TLR4; TLR4_HUMAN; TOLL; Toll like receptor 4; Toll-like receptor 4;
WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500, ELISA(peptide) 1:20000-1:40000
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.
Human, Mouse, Rat
The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
TLR4 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total TLR4.
Please cite this product as: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF7017, RRID:AB_2835322.
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol.Store at -20 °C.Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.
A synthesized peptide derived from human TLR4, corresponding to a region within the internal amino acids.
Observed Mol.Wt.: 100kD.
Predicted Mol.Wt.: 96kDa(Calculated)..
Highly expressed in placenta, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes (PubMed:9435236, PubMed:9237759). Detected in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of T-cells (PubMed:9237759, PubMed:27022195).
Toll like receptors (TLR) are highly conserved throughout evolution and have been implicated in the innate defense to many pathogens. In Drosophila toll is required for the anti fungal response, while the related 18 wheeler is involved in antibacterial defenses. In mammals, TLR identified as type I transmembrane signaling receptors with pattern recognition capabilities have been implicated in the innate host defense to pathogens. TLR4 has been identified next to MD2 and CD14 as a receptor that is central to the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Gram negative bacteria.
Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Also involved in LPS-independent inflammatory responses triggered by free fatty acids, such as palmitate, and Ni(2+). Responses triggered by Ni(2+) require non-conserved histidines and are, therefore, species-specific. Both M.tuberculosis HSP70 (dnaK) and HSP65 (groEL-2) act via this protein to stimulate NF-kappa-B expression. In complex with TLR6, promotes sterile inflammation in monocytes/macrophages in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or amyloid-beta 42. In this context, the initial signal is provided by oxLDL- or amyloid-beta 42-binding to CD36. This event induces the formation of a heterodimer of TLR4 and TLR6, which is rapidly internalized and triggers inflammatory response, leading to the NF-kappa-B-dependent production of CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCL9 cytokines, via MYD88 signaling pathway, and CCL5 cytokine, via TICAM1 signaling pathway, as well as IL1B secretion. Binds electronegative LDL (LDL(-)) and mediates the cytokine release induced by LDL(-). Stimulation of monocytes in vitro with M.tuberculosis PstS1 induces p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation primarily via TLR2, but also partially via this receptor.
N-glycosylated. Glycosylation of Asn-526 and Asn-575 seems to be necessary for the expression of TLR4 on the cell surface and the LPS-response. Likewise, mutants lacking two or more of the other N-glycosylation sites were deficient in interaction with LPS.
Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by LYN after binding lipopolysaccharide.
Cell membrane>Single-pass type I membrane protein. Early endosome. Cell projection>Ruffle.
Note: Upon complex formation with CD36 and TLR6, internalized through dynamin-dependent endocytosis (PubMed:20037584). Colocalizes with RFTN1 at cell membrane and then together with RFTN1 moves to endosomes, upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation.
Highly expressed in placenta, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes. Detected in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of T-cells.
Belongs to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, a multi-protein complex containing at least CD14, LY96 and TLR4. Binding to bacterial LPS leads to homodimerization. Interacts with LY96 via the extracellular domain. Interacts with MYD88 and TIRAP via their respective TIR domains (By similarity). Interacts with TICAM2. Interacts with NOX4. Interacts with CNPY3 (By similarity). Interacts with HSP90B1. The interaction with both CNPY3 and HSP90B1 is required for proper folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Interacts with MAP3K21; this interaction leads to negative regulation of TLR4 signaling. Interacts with CD36, following CD36 stimulation by oxLDL or amyloid-beta 42, and forms a heterodimer with TLR6. The trimeric complex is internalized and triggers inflammatory response. LYN kinase activity facilitates TLR4-TLR6 heterodimerization and signal initiation. Interacts with TICAM1 in response to LPS in a WDFY1-dependent manner. Interacts with WDFY1 in response to LPS (By similarity). Interacts with SMPDL3B (By similarity). Interacts with CEACAM1; upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation, forms a complex including TLR4 and the phosphorylated form of SYK and CEACAM1, which in turn, recruits PTPN6 that dephosphorylates SYK, reducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lysosome disruption, which in turn, reduces the activity of the inflammasome (By similarity). Interacts with RFTN1; the interaction occurs in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Interacts with SCIMP; the interaction occurs in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation and is enhanced by phosphorylation of SCIMP by LYN (By similarity). This interaction facilitates the phosphorylation of TLR4 by LYN which elicits a selective cytokine response in macrophages (By similarity).
(Microbial infection) In case of infection, interacts with uropathogenic E.coli protein TcpC.
The TIR domain mediates interaction with NOX4.
The TIR domain mediates NAD(+) hydrolase (NADase) activity. Self-association of TIR domains is required for NADase activity.
Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family.
· Cellular Processes > Transport and catabolism > Phagosome.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Necroptosis.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > NF-kappa B signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > HIF-1 signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Proteoglycans in cancer.
· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Rheumatoid arthritis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Legionellosis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Pertussis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Salmonella infection.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Amoebiasis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Measles.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Hepatitis B.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis).
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Tuberculosis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Viral > Influenza A.
· Human Diseases > Immune diseases > Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Malaria.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Leishmaniasis.
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Parasitic > Toxoplasmosis.
· Organismal Systems > Immune system > Toll-like receptor signaling pathway.(View pathway)
· Organismal Systems > Immune system > NOD-like receptor signaling pathway.(View pathway)
Tips: For phospho antibody, we provide phospho peptide（0.5mg) and non-phospho peptide(0.5mg).
Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. This mechanism is useful when non-specific binding is an issue, for example, in Western blotting (immunoblot) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). By comparing the staining from the blocked antibody versus the antibody alone, one can see which staining is specific; Specific binding will be absent from the western blot or immunostaining performed with the neutralized antibody.
Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 10 mg/ml.The purity is >90%,tested by HPLC and MS.Storage Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.
This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.