Product: CaMKII beta/ gamma/ delta Antibody
Catalog: AF6434
Source: Rabbit
Application: WB, IHC, ELISA(peptide)
Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat
Prediction: Pig, Bovine, Horse, Sheep, Rabbit, Xenopus
Mol.Wt.: 50kD,65kD; 73kD,63kD,56kD(Calculated).
Uniprot: Q13554 | Q13555 | Q13557
RRID: AB_2835259

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Product Info

Source:
Rabbit
Application:
WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, ELISA(peptide) 1:20000-1:40000
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.
Reactivity:
Human,Mouse,Rat
Prediction:
Pig(100%), Bovine(100%), Horse(100%), Sheep(100%), Rabbit(100%), Xenopus(100%)
Clonality:
Polyclonal
Specificity:
CaMK2 beta/ gamma/ delta Antibody detects endogenous levels of total CaMK2 beta/ gamma/ delta.
RRID:
AB_2835259
Cite Format: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF6434, RRID:AB_2835259.
Purification:
The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
Storage:
Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol. Store at -20 °C. Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.
Alias:

Fold/Unfold

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha; Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta; CaM kinase II subunit alpha; CaM kinase II subunit delta; CAM2; CaMK-II subunit alpha; CaMK-II subunit delta; CAMK2A; CAMK2B; CAMKA; CAMKB; CAMKD; CaMKII alpha; KIAA0968; CaM kinase II; CaM kinase II gamma chain; CaM kinase II subunit gamma; CAMK; CAMK II; CaMK II subunit gamma; CAMK2G; CAMKG; CAMKII; Calcium / calmodulin dependent protein kinase 2 delta; Calcium / calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II delta chain; Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta; CAM kinase 2 delta; CAM kinase II delta; CaM kinase II delta subunit; CaM kinase II subunit delta; CaM-kinase II delta chain; CAMK 2d; CaMK-II delta subunit; CaMK-II subunit delta; CAMK2D; CAMKD; CAMKI; KCC2D_HUMAN; RATCAMKI;

Immunogens

Immunogen:
Uniprot:
Gene(ID):
Expression:
Q13554 KCC2B_HUMAN:

Widely expressed. Expressed in adult and fetal brain. Expression is slightly lower in fetal brain. Expressed in skeletal muscle.

Q13555 KCC2G_HUMAN:

Expressed in skeletal muscle.

Q13557 KCC2D_HUMAN:

Expressed in cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle. Isoform Delta 3, isoform Delta 2, isoform Delta 8 and isoform Delta 9 are expressed in cardiac muscle. Isoform Delta 11 is expressed in skeletal muscle.

Description:
The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses.
Sequence:
MATTVTCTRFTDEYQLYEDIGKGAFSVVRRCVKLCTGHEYAAKIINTKKLSARDHQKLEREARICRLLKHSNIVRLHDSISEEGFHYLVFDLVTGGELFEDIVAREYYSEADASHCIQQILEAVLHCHQMGVVHRDLKPENLLLASKCKGAAVKLADFGLAIEVQGDQQAWFGFAGTPGYLSPEVLRKEAYGKPVDIWACGVILYILLVGYPPFWDEDQHKLYQQIKAGAYDFPSPEWDTVTPEAKNLINQMLTINPAKRITAHEALKHPWVCQRSTVASMMHRQETVECLKKFNARRKLKGAILTTMLATRNFSVGRQTTAPATMSTAASGTTMGLVEQAKSLLNKKADGVKPQTNSTKNSAAATSPKGTLPPAALEPQTTVIHNPVDGIKESSDSANTTIEDEDAKAPRVPDILSSVRRGSGAPEAEGPLPCPSPAPFSPLPAPSPRISDILNSVRRGSGTPEAEGPLSAGPPPCLSPALLGPLSSPSPRISDILNSVRRGSGTPEAEGPSPVGPPPCPSPTIPGPLPTPSRKQEIIKTTEQLIEAVNNGDFEAYAKICDPGLTSFEPEALGNLVEGMDFHRFYFENLLAKNSKPIHTTILNPHVHVIGEDAACIAYIRLTQYIDGQGRPRTSQSEETRVWHRRDGKWQNVHFHCSGAPVAPLQ

MATTATCTRFTDDYQLFEELGKGAFSVVRRCVKKTSTQEYAAKIINTKKLSARDHQKLEREARICRLLKHPNIVRLHDSISEEGFHYLVFDLVTGGELFEDIVAREYYSEADASHCIHQILESVNHIHQHDIVHRDLKPENLLLASKCKGAAVKLADFGLAIEVQGEQQAWFGFAGTPGYLSPEVLRKDPYGKPVDIWACGVILYILLVGYPPFWDEDQHKLYQQIKAGAYDFPSPEWDTVTPEAKNLINQMLTINPAKRITADQALKHPWVCQRSTVASMMHRQETVECLRKFNARRKLKGAILTTMLVSRNFSAAKSLLNKKSDGGVKKRKSSSSVHLMPQSNNKNSLVSPAQEPAPLQTAMEPQTTVVHNATDGIKGSTESCNTTTEDEDLKGRVPEGRSSRDRTAPSAGMQPQPSLCSSAMRKQEIIKITEQLIEAINNGDFEAYTKICDPGLTSFEPEALGNLVEGMDFHKFYFENLLSKNSKPIHTTILNPHVHVIGEDAACIAYIRLTQYIDGQGRPRTSQSEETRVWHRRDGKWLNVHYHCSGAPAAPLQ

MASTTTCTRFTDEYQLFEELGKGAFSVVRRCMKIPTGQEYAAKIINTKKLSARDHQKLEREARICRLLKHPNIVRLHDSISEEGFHYLVFDLVTGGELFEDIVAREYYSEADASHCIQQILESVNHCHLNGIVHRDLKPENLLLASKSKGAAVKLADFGLAIEVQGDQQAWFGFAGTPGYLSPEVLRKDPYGKPVDMWACGVILYILLVGYPPFWDEDQHRLYQQIKAGAYDFPSPEWDTVTPEAKDLINKMLTINPAKRITASEALKHPWICQRSTVASMMHRQETVDCLKKFNARRKLKGAILTTMLATRNFSAAKSLLKKPDGVKESTESSNTTIEDEDVKARKQEIIKVTEQLIEAINNGDFEAYTKICDPGLTAFEPEALGNLVEGMDFHRFYFENALSKSNKPIHTIILNPHVHLVGDDAACIAYIRLTQYMDGSGMPKTMQSEETRVWHRRDGKWQNVHFHRSGSPTVPIKPPCIPNGKENFSGGTSLWQNI

Predictions

Predictions:

Score>80(red) has high confidence and is suggested to be used for WB detection. *The prediction model is mainly based on the alignment of immunogen sequences, the results are for reference only, not as the basis of quality assurance.

Species
Results
Score
Pig
100
Horse
100
Bovine
100
Sheep
100
Xenopus
100
Rabbit
100
Dog
0
Zebrafish
0
Chicken
0
Model Confidence:
High(score>80) Medium(80>score>50) Low(score<50) No confidence

PTMs - Q13554/Q13555/Q13557 As Substrate

Site PTM Type Enzyme
K57 Ubiquitination
S79 Phosphorylation
K138 Ubiquitination
S146 Phosphorylation
K227 Acetylation
K227 Ubiquitination
Y231 Phosphorylation
S235 Phosphorylation
K246 Ubiquitination
T254 Phosphorylation
K259 Ubiquitination
K268 Ubiquitination
S276 Phosphorylation
S280 Phosphorylation
T287 Phosphorylation Q13554 (CAMK2B)
K299 Methylation
K301 Methylation
T306 Phosphorylation
T307 Phosphorylation
T311 Phosphorylation
S315 Phosphorylation
T328 Phosphorylation
K342 Acetylation
S394 Phosphorylation
S395 Phosphorylation
S397 Phosphorylation
T400 Phosphorylation
T401 Phosphorylation
S423 Phosphorylation
S436 Phosphorylation
S441 Phosphorylation
S456 Phosphorylation
S461 Phosphorylation
T463 Phosphorylation
S471 Phosphorylation
S479 Phosphorylation
S499 Phosphorylation
S504 Phosphorylation
T506 Phosphorylation
S522 Phosphorylation
Site PTM Type Enzyme
Y14 Phosphorylation
K22 Ubiquitination
S26 Phosphorylation
K34 Ubiquitination
T35 Phosphorylation
K43 Ubiquitination
K57 Ubiquitination
K69 Ubiquitination
S79 Phosphorylation
S114 Phosphorylation
K138 Ubiquitination
S146 Phosphorylation
K227 Acetylation
K227 Ubiquitination
Y231 Phosphorylation
S235 Phosphorylation
K246 Ubiquitination
T254 Phosphorylation
K259 Ubiquitination
K268 Ubiquitination
C273 S-Nitrosylation
S276 Phosphorylation
S280 Phosphorylation Q13555 (CAMK2G)
T287 Phosphorylation Q13555 (CAMK2G)
K299 Methylation
K301 Methylation
T306 Phosphorylation
T307 Phosphorylation
S311 Phosphorylation
S315 Phosphorylation
S319 Phosphorylation Q13555 (CAMK2G)
S325 Phosphorylation
S334 Phosphorylation
S336 Phosphorylation
S349 Phosphorylation
S352 Phosphorylation
T382 Phosphorylation
S384 Phosphorylation
T388 Phosphorylation
S419 Phosphorylation
S484 Phosphorylation
Site PTM Type Enzyme
A2 Acetylation
S3 Phosphorylation
K43 Ubiquitination
K57 Ubiquitination
K69 Ubiquitination
S79 Phosphorylation
K138 Ubiquitination
S146 Phosphorylation
K227 Acetylation
K227 Ubiquitination
Y231 Phosphorylation
S235 Phosphorylation
K246 Ubiquitination
K251 Ubiquitination
T254 Phosphorylation
S264 Phosphorylation
S276 Phosphorylation
S280 Phosphorylation
T287 Phosphorylation Q13557 (CAMK2D)
K299 Methylation
K301 Methylation
T306 Phosphorylation
T307 Phosphorylation
T311 Phosphorylation
S315 Phosphorylation
K318 Acetylation
K318 Ubiquitination
S319 Phosphorylation
S330 Phosphorylation
T331 Phosphorylation
S333 Phosphorylation
S334 Phosphorylation
T336 Phosphorylation
T337 Phosphorylation
C373 S-Nitrosylation
S404 Phosphorylation
S441 Phosphorylation
S472 Phosphorylation
T474 Phosphorylation
S490 Phosphorylation

PTMs - Q13554/Q13555/Q13557 As Enzyme

Substrate Site Source
O14490-2 (DLGAP1) S349 Uniprot
O14490-2 (DLGAP1) S393 Uniprot
P14921-1 (ETS1) S251 Uniprot
P14921-1 (ETS1) S257 Uniprot
P14921-1 (ETS1) S282 Uniprot
P14921-1 (ETS1) S285 Uniprot
P16949 (STMN1) S16 Uniprot
P26678 (PLN) T17 Uniprot
P35222 (CTNNB1) T332 Uniprot
P35222 (CTNNB1) T472 Uniprot
P35222 (CTNNB1) S552 Uniprot
P42224 (STAT1) S727 Uniprot
P49840 (GSK3A) S21 Uniprot
Q01970-1 (PLCB3) S537 Uniprot
Q12879-1 (GRIN2A) S1291 Uniprot
Q13131 (PRKAA1) T183 Uniprot
Q13224 (GRIN2B) S383 Uniprot
Q13224 (GRIN2B) S1303 Uniprot
Q13554-1 (CAMK2B) T287 Uniprot
Q9NQC7 (CYLD) S362 Uniprot
Q9NQC7 (CYLD) S418 Uniprot
Q9NQC7 (CYLD) S772 Uniprot
Substrate Site Source
O60266-1 (ADCY3) S1076 Uniprot
P00533-1 (EGFR) S1070 Uniprot
P00533-1 (EGFR) S1071 Uniprot
P07101-1 (TH) S19 Uniprot
P10276 (RARA) T210 Uniprot
P17600-2 (SYN1) S568 Uniprot
P17600-2 (SYN1) S605 Uniprot
P18846-1 (ATF1) S63 Uniprot
P21333-2 (FLNA) S2515 Uniprot
P21817-1 (RYR1) S2843 Uniprot
P28329 (CHAT) T574 Uniprot
P35270 (SPR) S213 Uniprot
P40763 (STAT3) S727 Uniprot
P42224-1 (STAT1) S727 Uniprot
P42261-1 (GRIA1) S645 Uniprot
P42261-1 (GRIA1) S849 Uniprot
P48058 (GRIA4) S862 Uniprot
P55042 (RRAD) S273 Uniprot
Q01970-1 (PLCB3) S537 Uniprot
Q03060-16 (CREM) S87 Uniprot
Q13555 (CAMK2G) S280 Uniprot
Q13555 (CAMK2G) T287 Uniprot
Q13555 (CAMK2G) S319 Uniprot
Q15121-1 (PEA15) S116 Uniprot
Q15746-1 (MYLK) S1760 Uniprot
Q92934 (BAD) S134 Uniprot
Q9UQL6 (HDAC5) S259 Uniprot
Q9UQL6 (HDAC5) S498 Uniprot
Substrate Site Source
O15084 (ANKRD28) S1011 Uniprot
P08670 (VIM) S83 Uniprot
P13688-8 (CEACAM1) T457 Uniprot
P13688-8 (CEACAM1) S459 Uniprot
P16220 (CREB1) S133 Uniprot
P16220 (CREB1) S142 Uniprot
P26678 (PLN) T17 Uniprot
P55327 (TPD52) S176 Uniprot
P56524 (HDAC4) S210 Uniprot
P56524 (HDAC4) S632 Uniprot
Q00613 (HSF1) S230 Uniprot
Q03060-16 (CREM) S87 Uniprot
Q08289-2 (CACNB2) T499 Uniprot
Q08289 (CACNB2) T554 Uniprot
Q13557 (CAMK2D) T287 Uniprot
Q13557-1 (CAMK2D) S315 Uniprot
Q13557-8 (CAMK2D) S319 Uniprot
Q13557-1 (CAMK2D) T331 Uniprot
Q13557-1 (CAMK2D) S333 Uniprot
Q13557-1 (CAMK2D) S334 Uniprot
Q13557-8 (CAMK2D) T337 Uniprot
Q14524 (SCN5A) S516 Uniprot
Q14524 (SCN5A) T594 Uniprot
Q14571 (ITPR2) S150 Uniprot
Q14654 (KCNJ11) T224 Uniprot
Q16695 (HIST3H3) S11 Uniprot
Q8WYL5 (SSH1) S937 Uniprot
Q8WYL5 (SSH1) S978 Uniprot
Q8WZ42 (TTN) S4062 Uniprot
Q8WZ42 (TTN) S11878 Uniprot
Q8WZ42 (TTN) S12022 Uniprot
Q92736 (RYR2) S2814 Uniprot
Q9UQL6 (HDAC5) S498 Uniprot

Research Backgrounds

Function:

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that functions autonomously after Ca(2+)/calmodulin-binding and autophosphorylation, and is involved in dendritic spine and synapse formation, neuronal plasticity and regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) transport in skeletal muscle. In neurons, plays an essential structural role in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton during plasticity by binding and bundling actin filaments in a kinase-independent manner. This structural function is required for correct targeting of CaMK2A, which acts downstream of NMDAR to promote dendritic spine and synapse formation and maintain synaptic plasticity which enables long-term potentiation (LTP) and hippocampus-dependent learning. In developing hippocampal neurons, promotes arborization of the dendritic tree and in mature neurons, promotes dendritic remodeling. Also regulates the migration of developing neurons. Participates in the modulation of skeletal muscle function in response to exercise. In slow-twitch muscles, is involved in regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) transport and in fast-twitch muscle participates in the control of Ca(2+) release from the SR through phosphorylation of triadin, a ryanodine receptor-coupling factor, and phospholamban (PLN/PLB), an endogenous inhibitor of SERCA2A/ATP2A2.

PTMs:

Autophosphorylation of Thr-287 following activation by Ca(2+)/calmodulin. Phosphorylation of Thr-287 locks the kinase into an activated state.

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm>Cytoskeleton. Cytoplasm>Cytoskeleton>Microtubule organizing center>Centrosome. Sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane>Peripheral membrane protein>Cytoplasmic side. Cell junction>Synapse.
Note: In slow-twitch muscle, evenly distributed between longitudinal SR and junctional SR.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Widely expressed. Expressed in adult and fetal brain. Expression is slightly lower in fetal brain. Expressed in skeletal muscle.

Subunit Structure:

CAMK2 is composed of 4 different chains: alpha (CAMK2A), beta (CAMK2B), gamma (CAMK2G), and delta (CAMK2D). The different isoforms assemble into homo- or heteromultimeric holoenzymes composed of 12 subunits with two hexameric rings stacked one on top of the other Ref.19). Interacts with SYNGAP1 and CAMK2N2 (By similarity). Interacts with MPDZ. Interacts with FOXO3 (By similarity). Interacts (when in a kinase inactive state not associated with calmodulin) with ARC; leading to target ARC to inactive synapses (By similarity).

Family&Domains:

The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization.

Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CaMK subfamily.

Function:

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that functions autonomously after Ca(2+)/calmodulin-binding and autophosphorylation, and is involved in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) transport in skeletal muscle and may function in dendritic spine and synapse formation and neuronal plasticity. In slow-twitch muscles, is involved in regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) transport and in fast-twitch muscle participates in the control of Ca(2+) release from the SR through phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor-coupling factor triadin. In the central nervous system, it is involved in the regulation of neurite formation and arborization. It may participate in the promotion of dendritic spine and synapse formation and maintenance of synaptic plasticity which enables long-term potentiation (LTP) and hippocampus-dependent learning.

PTMs:

Autophosphorylation of Thr-287 following activation by Ca(2+)/calmodulin. Phosphorylation of Thr-287 locks the kinase into an activated state.

Subcellular Location:

Sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane>Peripheral membrane protein>Cytoplasmic side.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Expressed in skeletal muscle.

Subunit Structure:

CAMK2 is composed of 4 different chains: alpha (CAMK2A), beta (CAMK2B), gamma (CAMK2G), and delta (CAMK2D). The different isoforms assemble into homo- or heteromultimeric holoenzymes composed of 12 subunits with two hexameric rings stacked one on top of the other.

Family&Domains:

The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization.

Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CaMK subfamily.

Function:

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostatis and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in heart by targeting ion channels, transporters and accessory proteins involved in Ca(2+) influx into the myocyte, Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), SR Ca(2+) uptake and Na(+) and K(+) channel transport. Targets also transcription factors and signaling molecules to regulate heart function. In its activated form, is involved in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Contributes to cardiac decompensation and heart failure by regulating SR Ca(2+) release via direct phosphorylation of RYR2 Ca(2+) channel on 'Ser-2808'. In the nucleus, phosphorylates the MEF2 repressor HDAC4, promoting its nuclear export and binding to 14-3-3 protein, and expression of MEF2 and genes involved in the hypertrophic program. Is essential for left ventricular remodeling responses to myocardial infarction. In pathological myocardial remodeling acts downstream of the beta adrenergic receptor signaling cascade to regulate key proteins involved in ECC. Regulates Ca(2+) influx to myocytes by binding and phosphorylating the L-type Ca(2+) channel subunit beta-2 CACNB2. In addition to Ca(2+) channels, can target and regulate the cardiac sarcolemmal Na(+) channel Nav1.5/SCN5A and the K+ channel Kv4.3/KCND3, which contribute to arrhythmogenesis in heart failure. Phosphorylates phospholamban (PLN/PLB), an endogenous inhibitor of SERCA2A/ATP2A2, contributing to the enhancement of SR Ca(2+) uptake that may be important in frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation (FDAR) and maintenance of contractile function during acidosis. May participate in the modulation of skeletal muscle function in response to exercise, by regulating SR Ca(2+) transport through phosphorylation of PLN/PLB and triadin, a ryanodine receptor-coupling factor.

PTMs:

Autophosphorylation of Thr-287 following activation by Ca(2+)/calmodulin. Phosphorylation of Thr-287 locks the kinase into an activated state.

Subcellular Location:

Cell membrane>Sarcolemma>Peripheral membrane protein>Cytoplasmic side. Sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane>Peripheral membrane protein>Cytoplasmic side.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location
Tissue Specificity:

Expressed in cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle. Isoform Delta 3, isoform Delta 2, isoform Delta 8 and isoform Delta 9 are expressed in cardiac muscle. Isoform Delta 11 is expressed in skeletal muscle.

Subunit Structure:

CAMK2 is composed of 4 different chains: alpha (CAMK2A), beta (CAMK2B), gamma (CAMK2G), and delta (CAMK2D). The different isoforms assemble into homo- or heteromultimeric holoenzymes composed of 12 subunits with two hexameric rings stacked one on top of the other. Interacts with RRAD and CACNB2 (By similarity).

Family&Domains:

The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization.

Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CaMK subfamily.

Research Fields

· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Oocyte meiosis.   (View pathway)

· Cellular Processes > Cell growth and death > Necroptosis.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > ErbB signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Calcium signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > cAMP signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > HIF-1 signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Environmental Information Processing > Signal transduction > Wnt signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Substance dependence > Amphetamine addiction.

· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Tuberculosis.

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Pathways in cancer.   (View pathway)

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Overview > Proteoglycans in cancer.

· Human Diseases > Cancers: Specific types > Glioma.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Circulatory system > Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Development > Axon guidance.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Environmental adaptation > Circadian entrainment.

· Organismal Systems > Nervous system > Long-term potentiation.

· Organismal Systems > Nervous system > Neurotrophin signaling pathway.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Nervous system > Cholinergic synapse.

· Organismal Systems > Nervous system > Dopaminergic synapse.

· Organismal Systems > Sensory system > Olfactory transduction.

· Organismal Systems > Sensory system > Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Insulin secretion.   (View pathway)

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Melanogenesis.

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Oxytocin signaling pathway.

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Glucagon signaling pathway.

· Organismal Systems > Endocrine system > Aldosterone synthesis and secretion.

· Organismal Systems > Digestive system > Gastric acid secretion.

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