Cartilage-inducing factor; CED; Differentiation inhibiting factor; DPD1; LAP; Latency-associated peptide; Prepro transforming growth factor beta 1; TGF beta 1; TGF beta; TGF beta 1 protein; TGF-beta 1 protein; TGF-beta-1; TGF-beta-5; TGF-beta1; TGFB; Tgfb-1; tgfb1; TGFB1_HUMAN; TGFbeta; TGFbeta1; Transforming Growth Factor b1; Transforming Growth Factor beta 1; Transforming growth factor beta 1a; transforming growth factor beta-1; transforming growth factor, beta 1; Transforming Growth Factor-ß1;
WB 1:500-1:2000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.
Human, Mouse, Rat
TGF beta1 antibody detects endogenous levels of total TGF beta1.
Mouse IgG in phosphate buffered saline (without Mg2+ and Ca2+), pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol.Store at -20 °C.Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.
A synthesized peptide derived from human TGF beta1.
Observed Mol.Wt.: 33kD.
Predicted Mol.Wt.: 44kDa(Calculated)..
Highly expressed in bone (PubMed:11746498, PubMed:17827158). Abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes and is increased in osteoarthritis (OA) (PubMed:11746498, PubMed:17827158). Colocalizes with ASPN in chondrocytes within OA lesions of articular cartilage (PubMed:17827158).
Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein: Precursor of the Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chains, which constitute the regulatory and active subunit of TGF-beta-1, respectively.
Required to maintain the Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chain in a latent state during storage in extracellular matrix. Associates non-covalently with TGF-beta-1 and regulates its activation via interaction with 'milieu molecules', such as LTBP1, LRRC32/GARP and LRRC33/NRROS, that control activation of TGF-beta-1. Interaction with LRRC33/NRROS regulates activation of TGF-beta-1 in macrophages and microglia (Probable). Interaction with LRRC32/GARP controls activation of TGF-beta-1 on the surface of activated regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Interaction with integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8) results in distortion of the Latency-associated peptide chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-1.
Transforming growth factor beta-1: Multifunctional protein that regulates the growth and differentiation of various cell types and is involved in various processes, such as normal development, immune function, microglia function and responses to neurodegeneration (By similarity). Activation into mature form follows different steps: following cleavage of the proprotein in the Golgi apparatus, Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chains remain non-covalently linked rendering TGF-beta-1 inactive during storage in extracellular matrix. At the same time, LAP chain interacts with 'milieu molecules', such as LTBP1, LRRC32/GARP and LRRC33/NRROS that control activation of TGF-beta-1 and maintain it in a latent state during storage in extracellular milieus. TGF-beta-1 is released from LAP by integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8): integrin-binding to LAP stabilizes an alternative conformation of the LAP bowtie tail and results in distortion of the LAP chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-1. Once activated following release of LAP, TGF-beta-1 acts by binding to TGF-beta receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), which transduce signal. While expressed by many cells types, TGF-beta-1 only has a very localized range of action within cell environment thanks to fine regulation of its activation by Latency-associated peptide chain (LAP) and 'milieu molecules' (By similarity). Plays an important role in bone remodeling: acts as a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts (By similarity). Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner (By similarity). At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development (By similarity). At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells (By similarity). Stimulates sustained production of collagen through the activation of CREB3L1 by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). Mediates SMAD2/3 activation by inducing its phosphorylation and subsequent translocation to the nucleus. Can induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration in various cell types.
Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein: The precursor proprotein is cleaved in the Golgi apparatus by FURIN to form Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) and Latency-associated peptide (LAP) chains, which remain non-covalently linked, rendering TGF-beta-1 inactive.
N-glycosylated. Deglycosylation leads to activation of Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1); mechanisms triggering deglycosylation-driven activation of TGF-beta-1 are however unclear.
Secreted>Extracellular space>Extracellular matrix.
Highly expressed in bone. Abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes and is increased in osteoarthritis (OA). Colocalizes with ASPN in chondrocytes within OA lesions of articular cartilage.
Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts with the serine proteases, HTRA1 and HTRA3: the interaction with either inhibits TGFB1-mediated signaling. The HTRA protease activity is required for this inhibition (By similarity). May interact with THSD4; this interaction may lead to sequestration by FBN1 microfibril assembly and attenuation of TGFB signaling (By similarity). Interacts with CD109, DPT and ASPN. Latency-associated peptide: Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chain; interaction is non-covalent and maintains (TGF-beta-1) in a latent state; each Latency-associated peptide (LAP) monomer interacts with TGF-beta-1 in the other monomer. Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with LTBP1; leading to regulate activation of TGF-beta-1. Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with LRRC32/GARP; leading to regulate activation of TGF-beta-1 on the surface of activated regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Interacts with LRRC33/NRROS; leading to regulate activation of TGF-beta-1 in macrophages and microglia (Probable). Latency-associated peptide: Interacts (via cell attachment site) with integrins ITGAV and ITGB6 (ITGAV:ITGB6), leading to release of the active TGF-beta-1. Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with NREP; the interaction results in a decrease in TGFB1 autoinduction (By similarity). Latency-associated peptide: Interacts with HSP90AB1; inhibits latent TGFB1 activation. Transforming growth factor beta-1: Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Transforming growth factor beta-1: Interacts with TGF-beta receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), leading to signal transduction.
The 'straitjacket' and 'arm' domains encircle the Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) monomers and are fastened together by strong bonding between Lys-56 and Tyr-103/Tyr-104.
The cell attachment site motif mediates binding to integrins (ITGAV:ITGB6 or ITGAV:ITGB8) (PubMed:28117447). The motif locates to a long loop in the arm domain called the bowtie tail (PubMed:28117447). Integrin-binding stabilizes an alternative conformation of the bowtie tail (PubMed:28117447). Activation by integrin requires force application by the actin cytoskeleton, which is resisted by the 'milieu molecules' (such as LTBP1, LRRC32/GARP and/or LRRC33/NRROS), resulting in distortion of the prodomain and release of the active TGF-beta-1 (PubMed:28117447).
Belongs to the TGF-beta family.
Tips: For phospho antibody, we provide phospho peptide（0.5mg) and non-phospho peptide(0.5mg).
Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. This mechanism is useful when non-specific binding is an issue, for example, in Western blotting (immunoblot) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). By comparing the staining from the blocked antibody versus the antibody alone, one can see which staining is specific; Specific binding will be absent from the western blot or immunostaining performed with the neutralized antibody.
Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 10 mg/ml.The purity is >90%,tested by HPLC and MS.Storage Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.
This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.